As "Operation Desert Shield" was gaining momentum in the last months of 1990 and the first months of 1991 it was widely reported that the Iraqis had carried out appalling atrocities in Kuwait. The worst of the individual atrocities, which made headlines around the world, involved over three hundred premature babies who died after Iraqi soldiers took them from their incubators in order to cart the equipment off to Iraq. The Red Crescent Society, the Muslim equivalent of the Red Cross, was the first organization to report the terrible incident. Several eyewitnesses, including a young, obviously distressed Kuwait woman who remained anonymous for reasons of security, appeared in dozens of television news items and confirmed the verity of the story. Kuwait's embassy in Washington publicly condemned Iraq for this act of barbarity, and numerous world leaders, including President Bush on several occasions, cited it as evidence of Iraq's brutal maltreatment of innocent Kuwaiti civilians. That the incident occurred was said to have been proven "beyond doubt".
Nonetheless, within weeks of the US-led coalition's stunning victory over Iraq, it was discovered by ABC journalist that the "incubator atrocity" never occurred. Many premature babies had indeed died, but not as a result of Iraqi brutality. Basically, they died because the nursing staff deserted them and because the maternity hospital itself locked the incubators away in storage rooms. Dr. Mohammed Matar, who ran the hospital, admitted that the widely-circulated atrocity claims were "just for propaganda". It later turned out that the much-publicized "eyewitness" was the daughter of a Kuwaiti ambassador to the United States, that she had not even been in Kuwait at the time the atrocity was said to have been committed, and that her story was entirely concocted.
This case has nothing to do with the Holocaust. Yet other now discredited Gulf War atrocity claims are similar in nature and substance, although not in scope, to certain Holocaust claims. For example, at the height of the Gulf War The Jewish Press, which promotes itself as "the [world's] largest independent Anglo-Jewish weekly newspaper", reported that on Saddam Hussein's orders Iraq had constructed gas chambers for exterminating all Jews in the Middle East. The February 15, 1991 issue carried the headline, in huge letters: "IRAQIS HAVE GAS CHAMBERS FOR ALL JEWS". Similarly, a number of newspapers reported that the Iraqis had constructed a "death camp in occupied Kuwait" where civilians, including children, were being executed en masse. These claims, although supported by seemingly-genuine eyewitness accounts and citations [p. 329] to official sources, were later proven to be entirely groundless.
It would, of course, be extremely irresponsible to conclude from these examples of blatant propaganda falsehood that Nazi atrocities against Jews must also have been the invention of propaganda. These examples are intended only as a useful reminder that during wartime truth is often abandoned in favor of propaganda, and that atrocity propaganda is still used as a weapon against enemies.
Atrocity propaganda is one of the hallmarks of modern warfare, due mostly to the development of the mass media. During the First World War the German public was told that staff members of French and Belgian hospitals were gouging out the eyes of captured German soldiers. The British public was told by their own newspapers, and the propaganda ministry set up by Charles Masterman in September 1914, that babies in Belgium were thrown up and caught on the end of German bayonets, that Belgian children had their arms or hands cut off, and that the Germans were making soap from human cadavers. After the introduction of gas onto the battlefield in 1915, homicidal gassings of civilians began to feature in atrocity propaganda. For example, in March 1916 the Daily Telegraph reported that the Austrians and the Bulgarians had murdered hundreds of thousands of Serbians using poison gas. In one case, stated this newspaper, three thousand women, children and elderly men were gassed in a church in Belgrade. Government sources, documents and seemingly credible eyewitness accounts were provided to support these sorts of claims.
During the Second World War Josef Goebbels and his Reich Ministry of Information and Propaganda were not the only propagandists disseminating untrue stories of atrocities committed by their enemies. The British Government, like those of its allies, was active in spreading anti-German and anti-Japanese atrocity propaganda. The Political Warfare Executive and the Ministry of Information were two of the government agencies involved in disseminating this type of misinformation. In his book on Allied diplomacy , for instance, Edward Rozek notes that the following memorandum was sent in June 1944 from the Ministry of Information to high-level civil servants, leading media figures and to the higher British Clergy:
I am directed by the Ministry to send you the following circular letter: It is often the duty of the good citizens and of the pious Christians to turn a blind eye on the peculiarities of those associated with us. But the time comes when such peculiarities, while still denied in public, must be taken into account when action by us is called for.
We know the methods of rule employed by the Bolshevik dictator in Russia itself from, for example, the writing and speeches of the Prime Minister himself during the last twenty years. We know how the Red Army behaved in Poland in 1920 and in Finland, Estonia, Latvia, Galicia and Bessarabia only recently.
We must, therefore, take into account how the Red Army will certainly behave when it overruns Central Europe. Unless precautions are taken, the obviously inevitable horrors which will result will throw an undue strain on public opinion in this country.
We cannot reform the Bolsheviks but we can do our best to save them - and ourselves - from the consequences of their acts. The disclosures of the past quarter of a century will render mere denials unconvincing. The only alternative to denial is to distract public attention from the whole subject.
Experience has shown that the best distraction is atrocity propaganda directed against the enemy. Unfortunately the public is no longer so susceptible as in the days of the "Corpse Factory" and the "Mutilated Belgian Babies" and the "Crucified Canadians."
Your cooperation is therefore earnestly sought to distract public attention from the doings of the Red Army by your wholehearted support of various charges against the Germans and Japanese which have and which will be put into circulation by the Ministry.
Your expression of relief in such may convince others. I am, Sir, Your obedient servant,
(signed) H. HEWETT, ASSISTANT SECRETARY
The Ministry can enter into no correspondence of any kind with regard to this communication which should only be disclosed to responsible persons.
These few words about atrocity propaganda are not intended to cast a shadow of doubt upon the nature of the Holocaust. They are intended only to illustrate the need for historians to approach all reported wartime atrocities - including those by Nazis against Jews - with a heightened sense of circumspection. However, throughout this study it was noted that many people, including historians, have incautiously accepted a number of allegations of brutality or crimes against Jews which, in fact, cannot survive the standard tests of historical evidence. For example, for almost fifty years it was claimed (and is still claimed by many non-specialists) that the skin of murdered Jews was tanned by certain Nazis and used to make book covers and lamp shades. Physical samples of these human-skin products were even produced at the International military tribunal, and eyewitnesses came forward to testify that they had seen these atrocities occurring. It is now known, however, that the samples produced as evidence were made of goat skin and the testimonies of the eyewitnesses were fraudulent. It is the same with the allegation that Nazis turned Jewish cadavers into soap. Plentiful evidence for the soap story was presented at the International Military Tribunal. Eyewitnesses testified or signed affidavits, providing the prosecutors with specific details such as the names of those involved in the soap production, the names and locations of factories where the soap was made, chemical 'recipes' and so forth. A cake of human soap was also produced as evidence. Even Sir Hartley Shawcross, chief British prosecutor, stated in his closing address that the bodies of the Nazis' victims were "used to make good the wartime shortage of soap". Although one or two historians rejected the human soap story in the 1980s, it was not until 1990 that historians, following the lead of Yehuda Bauer, really began to abandon it. They apparently did so because Revisionists were easily disproving such claims.
A careful and impartial investigation of the available evidence pertaining to Nazi gas chambers reveals that even these apparently fall into the category of atrocity propaganda. Because of the seriousness of this statement it is necessary to make the following defence. First, the RSHA monitoring service for foreign broadcasts discovered that the BBC and other Allied radio stations were broadcasting right across Europe a number of atrocity claims. These included allegations that Jews were being exterminated in gas chambers. These broadcasts, sent regularly throughout the second half of the war, were in a number of languages, including German, Polish and Spanish. On July 2, 1944, for example, the BBC broadcast in Spanish the claim that 400,000 Jews had been deported from Hungary to Germany and killed in gas chambers. These radio broadcasts would have been received by a number of resistance organisations in the concentration and labour camps, which, as numerous memoirs by former internees attest, had secret radio sets. Although it is difficult to gauge the influence these broadcasts had on those who received them in the camps, they doubtless contributed to the widespread belief that such atrocities were occurring.
Second, Allied aeroplanes dropped large numbers of leaflets, written in German and Polish, over the Auschwitz camps stating that gassings were occurring. One source worth quoting, because it describes both these pamphlet drops and the Allied radio broadcasts, is the affidavit of Charles J. Coward which was submitted to the Nuremberg Military Tribunal in 1947. Coward, a Battery Sergeant in the 8th Reserve Regimental Royal Artillery, was captured by the Germans in May 1940 and placed in a succession of different Stalag camps. In December 1943 he was transferred to Auschwitz to work at the I.G. Farben industrial complex, and was housed in camp E715. The relevant section of Coward's affidavit states:
Even while still at Auschwitz we got radio broadcasts from the outside "speaking about the gassings and burnings at Auschwitz. I recall one of those broadcasts was by Anthony Eden himself. Also, there were pamphlets dropped in Auschwitz and the surrounding territory, one of which I personally read, which related what was going on in the camp at Auschwitz... These leaflets were scattered all over the countryside...
Third, the rumor that people were being gassed by the Nazis was widespread in certain regions of Europe during the war, and led to some people believing in gassings without seeing any evidence for them. Others, of course, heard the rumors and believed them for a time, only to reject them later. For example, in December 1942 Maria van Herwaaden was sent to Auschwitz-Birkenau for having sexual intercourse with a Polish forced laborer who worked with her on an Austrian farm. During the train journey from Vienna to Auschwitz Herwaaden was told by a [p. 332] Gypsy woman that they would all be gassed on arrival. Shortly after she arrived in Auschwitz Her-waaden was taken with other women into a building where their hair, both head and pubic, was shaved and their clothes were taken from them. They were then moved into a large, cold concrete room without windows. They were told they were to have a shower. The women were absolutely terrified because they were sure they were about to be gassed, as the Gypsy had said. However, to their great relief, only water flowed from the shower heads. Herwaaden remained in Auschwitz until January 1945, and although she witnessed numerous deaths by suicide on the electric fences and thousands of deaths by disease she saw no evidence of gassings, shootings or any other types of extermination. There are numerous examples of internees even hearing and believing rumors of gassings in camps where gassings are now claimed by orthodox scholars not to have taken place.
Fourth, gas chambers were only one of a number of apparatus originally claimed in Allied reports to have been used by Nazis to exterminate Jews. As already noted, both during the war and at the main Nuremberg trial it was seriously claimed that Jews were also killed in steam chambers or by electrocution in mechanically-operated vats of water. Even the OSS, the United States' main intelligence agency, reported that Jews were steamed to death in Treblinka. It was also claimed by the Polish government that Jews were killed in chambers by suffocation when the air was extracted by huge pumps. The evidence produced at that time in support of these now-discredited claims is not qualitatively different from the evidence produced in support of the gassing claims. Eyewitnesses even came forward to testify or sign affidavits about the steamings, electrocutions and suffocations. Their accounts of the killing processes were detailed and contained descriptions of the machinery and buildings involved. However, despite the simile [aaargh: ?] evidence for these killings, allegations of steamings, electrocutions and suffocations have been quietly dropped whilst the gassing claims remain. Historians have never explained why they considered the evidence for gassings more credible than the evidence for these other methods of extermination.
Fifth, at the International Military Tribunal (and for the next two decades or so) it was claimed that the Nazis systematically gassed Jews not only in camps in occupied territories but also in camps on German soil. At Buchenwald, Dachau and several other German camps murder was conducted, said Sir Hartley Shawcross, "like some mass production industry in the gas chambers and crematories." 230,000 persons were said to have died in Dachau alone, many of them in the gas chamber. Eyewitnesses testified and signed affidavits about these gassings, which they sometimes described in gruesome detail. The gas chambers were mentioned in official government reports, were inspected and photographed, and Dachau's was even opened up to the public. In [p. 333] fact, the evidence provided for the existence of these gas chambers is not qualitatively different from the evidence for the gas chambers in the camps in Poland now referred to as 'death camps'. However, despite the fact that the evidence for gassings in Germany is no less credible than the evidence cited for gassings in Poland, specialists in the field now state that no systematic exterminations in gas chambers occurred on German soil. The claims about gassings in Germany were quietly abandoned decades ago. Systematic mass gassings, according to accepted opinion, only occurred in six camps in Poland: Auschwitz (I and II), Majdanek, Belzec, Sobibor, Chelmno and Treblinka. Historians have never explained why they consider the evidence for gassings in the east more credible than for gassings in the west.
Sixth, it is apparent that the descriptions of gassings in the eastern death camps given by former internees and SS personnel contain many lapses, errors, fabrications and distortions. A number of these flaws are major, and seriously diminish the sources' overall reliability and credibility. We noted, for example, that the so-called 'confession of Kurt Gerstein', is amongst the most widely cited sources for gassings at Belzec. Yet Gerstein insisted that "at least twenty million persons" had been gassed in the Nazi concentration camps, that in Belzec 700-800 persons were gassed at a time in rooms the size of an average bedroom, that he saw in Belzec a pile of shoes the height of a ten story building, and that he saw in Treblinka a pile of clothes the same height. He also insisted that "in Auschwitz alone millions of children were murdered by having a pad [translated by many scholars as "tampon"] of hydrocyanic acid held under their noses". It is the same with Miklos Nyiszli's widely cited account of gassings in Birkenau. Aside from the number of other errors and fabrications in his account, the fantastic gas chambers he described are almost the same length as two New Zealand rugby fields end on end. These sources are unfortunately typical of the evidence supporting claims of gassings in the eastern camps. They will not survive the standard methodological tests of historical evidence.
Seventh, the scores of original German blueprints and architectural plans for the crematory buildings in Auschwitz allegedly housing gas chambers contain no evidence that these buildings were ever used for homicidal purposes. On the contrary, the specifications revealed in the blueprints and plans show that the rooms now designated as gas chambers could not possibly have held anywhere near the numbers of persons purportedly gassed in them at a time. It would have been physically impossible. The blueprints and plans, which also record all structural changes made to the buildings, clearly indicate that the only ventilation devices in the morgues (the alleged gas chambers) were ordinary morgue air ventilators. The rooms had no air exhaust devices suitable for gas extraction. They also had no air heating or circulation systems, both of which would be [p. 334] necessary for gassings with Zyklon-B.
Eighth, inspections of the physical remains of the crematory buildings in Auschwitz and Majdanek (nothing is left at the other camps) confirm that the buildings were constructed in accordance with the blueprints and architectural plans, and that no additional structural changes were made to transform them into gas chambers. Moreover, whilst blue staining (indicating the presence of iron-cyanide compounds) is clearly visible on the surfaces of the delousing chambers, no staining can be detected on the surfaces of the alleged gas chambers. Physical samples taken from these rooms by specialists (including scientists from the Krakow institute) and submitted for chemical analysis also show that the rooms were never exposed to significant amounts of cyanide.
Ninth, whilst the specifications and layouts of the buildings' physical remains match identically those shown in the original blueprints, descriptions of the gas chambers given in the already contradictory and implausible eyewitness accounts resemble neither the physical remains nor the buildings shown in the plans. Nyiszli, for example, described multiple corpse elevators and automatically-opening cremation ovens. Building plans and contemporary photographs clearly reveal that these never existed. Similarly, in the WRB report of November 1944 the layout of the rooms, the layout and number of ovens, and the method of removing corpses bear no resemblance either to other eyewitness accounts, to the original blueprints, or to the physical remains of the buildings. Of course, we now know that the authors of that section of the WRB report never actually entered the buildings they described, but relied instead on hearsay evidence.
Tenth, it is not possible even today with our sophisticated and technologically-advanced equipment to cremate human cadavers at anywhere near the rate claimed in most books on the Holocaust. Whereas today an average-sized adult body can be cremated in around eighty minutes, in the early 1940s it took two hours or more. Claims that corpses were incinerated in ten or twenty minutes (or even less, if we are to believe some 'eyewitnesses') are extremely far-fetched, to say the least. In order to be sure of his facts on such a grisly matter the present writer consulted cremation experts and even took the opportunity to observe the cremation of a[n] average-sized male body in a modern oven which reached almost 1900°F. He can confirm that even after thirty minutes the corpse was well burned but still very much intact. Therefore, the claims of historians of the Holocaust and former internees that 6,000 or more bodies of gassed Jews were cremated each day in the forty-six retorts in Birkenau are very irresponsible. The highest claim the present writer is aware of is 17,280 per day, which is preposterous . Including 'down time' no more than 250 bodies could have been [p. 335] cremated each day.
Eleventh, detailed aerial photographs of the entire Auschwitz complex taken on random occasions throughout the period in 1944 when the gassing process was supposed to be at its height (ten thousand or so per day) show no signs that any murderous activities were occurring. Despite the claims of many former internees that smoke and flame emanated continually from the crematory chimneys, and was visible for miles around, not even one of the detailed photographs show any flames or smoke. In any event, having studied the blueprints of the ovens and chimneys and having submitted them to an American cremation expert for his opinion the present writer can confirm that the Auschwitz crematories, like the crematories in Christchurch and all other major cities, could not emit any flames or dense smoke. Additionally, and clearly more importantly, none of the photographs show any signs of the piles of corpses, large pyres, burial pits, and so forth that are claimed to have been in Auschwitz at this time.
Finally, the gassing claim is irreconcilable with the overwhelming weight of evidence on the nature of official Nazi policy on the Jewish question. That policy, our careful and unbiased reading of the evidence suggested, was not one of total extermination, but was a brutal policy of deportation and forced labour.
This departure from accepted opinion on the gas chambers does not represent an ideological defence of one school of historical thought on this issue against the other. Nor is it an attempt to rehabilitate the Third Reich. The present writer considers the Nazis' brutal and destructive treatment of Jews, Slavs, Gypsies, Communists, Jehovah's Witnesses, the physically and mentally ill and other such groups to be abhorrent. As a libertarian he also finds repugnant the Nazis' assault on freedom of thought, freedom of speech, and freedom of the press, and considers their persecution of political dissenters and academic and artistic free-thinkers worthy of the international condemnation it was and continues to be met with.
Moreover, although the weight of evidence supports the view that the Nazis did not systematically exterminate Jews in gas chambers or have an extermination policy as such, it cannot be denied that Jews in German hands suffered terribly during the Second World War. Even Hitler threatened that "brutal methods could be used, if necessary" to force the Jews to the east and to put them to work. "Really, the Jews should be grateful to me for wanting nothing more than a bit of hard work from them", exclaimed the exasperated Führer after learning of an Allied radio broadcast that the Jews were being exterminated. To understand what exactly Hitler meant by this understatement "wanting nothing more" it is appropriate to return to his comments to Horthy in April 1943: "The
[p. 336] Jews are just parasites.... If the Jews there [in Poland] refused to work, they were shot. Those who could not work just wasted away." Gas chambers or no gas chambers, Hitler was responsible for the terrible maltreatment of the Jewish people.
The total number of Jewish deaths is probably impossible to determine, as even scholars upholding orthodox opinion agree. Figures range from four million to six or more million. No estimate has been offered in this thesis, although the total would undoubtedly be more than one million and far less than the symbolic figure of six million. Random atrocities, pogroms by local inhabitants in occupied territories (particularly Latvia and Lithuania), and the actions of the murderous Einsatzgruppen claimed the lives of many hundreds of thousands. As Himmler himself revealed in his above-[cit]ed speech to the naval officers in Weimar on December 16, 1943, thousands of innocent Jewish women and children were killed along with the men in the occupied Soviet territories as the Einsatzgruppen carried out various reprisals and hunted out commissars, partisans, political agitators, criminals and other security threats and undesirables. Sometimes hundreds of Jews or more at a time were robbed of their possessions, lined up in front of ditches, and mowed down by rifle or machine-gun fire. Because of the squalid conditions they were forced to live and work in, hundreds of thousands more Jews died of typhus, diarrhea and a variety of other diseases. Tens of thousands more died during the deportations and of malnutrition and overwork, and routine brutality claimed the lives of countless more. These deaths cannot by justified.
But what of the Revisionists? It is worth repeating one point made above: some Revisionist books and articles (such as those by Weber, Irving and Faurisson) are balanced and authoritative, containing both solid research and highly-developed analysis. They contribute substantially to the accumulated body of knowledge about the Holocaust, and should not be ignored or discounted out-of-hand by historians upholding received opinion. The truth-seeking historian has nothing to fear from these scholars.
The present writer recently read in an American newspaper an excellent letter from Laird Wilcox, the political commentator described in the introduction to this study. Because they seem to sum up nicely, albeit slightly more harshly, the points made in this thesis it is worth using Wilcox's words to round off this conclusion.
I think revisionists have an exaggerated faith in their own beliefs and arguments, as though if you can disprove Jewish holocaust claims, then all the Jews will say, "Son-of-a-gun! You guys sure caught us on that one. I guess all we can do now is march into the sea and disappear!"
This, however, is not to be. Even absent gas chambers and six million dead, Adolf Hitler's onslaught against human rights, civil liberties, and basic human rationality are only exceeded by the Marxist-Leninists. There is still one helluva lot to explain about the [p. 337] mistreatment of Jews and others. The Nazi regime was horrible even by the most generous standards, and no amount of debunking one claim or another can erase the totality of their brutality. Even if Jews are removed from the issue entirely, Nazism was brutal beyond any justification....
Extremists and fanatics on both sides have tended to make this subject a "no man's land" where most scholars fear to tread. I think it's especially important to keep a clear head, to give full recognition to the human factors involved, and to be as honest and objective as possible. If there are errors in contemporary accounts of the holocaust, they should be investigated and brought to light. But this is not the same as ameliorating the responsibility of Adolf Hitler and his evil regime, and it is not an indictment against the Jews should they prove to be wrong about the holocaust in some respect or other.
Now having said all of this, I also believe that Jewish organizations have been incredibly heavy-handed and repressive in confronting the holocaust revisionist issue. Typically, they revert to name-calling and harassment and advocating silencing revisionists. What this has done is give revisionists a decided underdog image and lend credibility to their charges that Jews are afraid to debate the issues because they fear the results. This argument has some merits, and one has to really wonder what they have to fear.
What they have to fear is not that the holocaust will be debunked. I think the Jewish community has the resources and personnel to give the revisionist movement a serious challenge in a debate situation. In terms of the bulk of expert testimony alone the Jewish community could snow their opposition. What the Jewish community fears is that to allow the holocaust to even be debatable is an admission of uncertainty, and that cannot happen. There is probably no issue so central to Jewish identity as the holocaust. One can argue whether this should or shouldn't be, but it nevertheless is.
In my view, this inflexibility, and stridency is a mistake. Its like putting all your eggs in one basket. Had I been in charge of this issue I would have anticipated that someday I might have to say, "OK, so maybe our figures aren't etched in stone, and maybe gas chambers weren't as prevalent as we thought. So what? It really doesn't change anything much, does it? However extensive it was, or wasn't, it was still terrible and deserves the universal condemnation of mankind."
Had they done this, they wouldn't have boxed themselves into a corner as they have. What could happen (and I think it will happen) is that no amount of repression and name-calling will keep scholars from investigating this issue (some might even be attracted by it on those grounds alone), and it's probably just a matter of time until some mainstream scholar, possibly nearing retirement, will publish the revisionist book that will break the dam and then all this effort has been for naught.
 Cf. Seattle Times, March 16, 1991
 The Jewish Press, Vol. XLI, No. 7, Week commencing February 15, 1991, pp. 1, 4. The Iraqi gas chamber claim appeared in a number of other newspapers, both Jewish and non-Jewish. Cf. Citizen (Auburn, New York), February 11, 1991
 "Iraqis reportedly run camps of death", Plain Dealer (Cleveland, Ohio), February 12, 1991
 E. J. Rozek, Allied Wartime Diplomacy: A Pattern in Poland (New York: John Wiley, 1958)
 Czech, Auschwitz Chronicle, p. 657. Of course, no historians now believe that mass gassings of Jews occurred in Germany. Cf. also the BBC's German-language broadcast of June 15, 1944 regarding gassings in Birkenau (ibid., p. 647); et al.
 Affidavit of July 24, 1947, in NMT, Volume VIII, p. 606; cf. Coward's testimony before the Tribunal, in ibid., pp. 608ff.
 SZTR, 25-6623-6651
 Lengyel, Five Chimneys: the Story of Auschwitz, p. 69
 Recorded by Heinrich Heim, in Irving, Hitler's War, p. 332
 Christian News, Volume 27, No. 39, October 23, 1989
E. L. Van Roden, "American Atrocities in Germany",
The Progressive, February 1949, p. 21f.
American Atrocities in Germany
By JUDGE EDWARD L. VAN RODEN
AMERICAN investigators at the U. S. Court in Dachau, Germany, used the following methods to obtain confessions: Beatings and brutal kickings. Knocking out teeth and breaking jaws. Mock trials. Solitary confinement. Posturing as priests. Very limited rations. Spiritual deprivation. Promises of acquittal. Complaints concerning these third degree methods were received by Secretary of the Army Kenneth Royall last Spring. Royall appointed Justice Gordon Simpson of the Texas Supreme Court and me to go to Germany and check up on the reports. Accompanied by Lt. Col. Charles Lawrence. Jr., we went to Munich, Germany, set up offices there, and heard a stream of testimony about the way in which American atrocities were committed.
But first, a bit of the background. Last Spring the Supreme Court refused the habeas corpus petition of Col. Willis N. Everett. Jr., an American lawyer, who had served as defense counsel for the 74 Germans accused in the famous Malmedy case. Everett is a very able lawyer, a conscientious and sincere gentleman. He is not a fanatic.
In his petition. Everett charged that the Germans had not received a fair trial. Everett did not claim that all the German defendants were innocent, but since they did not have a fair trial, there was no way of telling the innocent from the guilty.
The tragedy is that so many of us Americans, having fought and won the war with so much sweat and blood, now say. "All Germans should be punished". We won the war, but some of us want to go on killing. That seems to me wicked.
If Everett's shocking charges were true, they would be a blot on the American conscience for eternity. The fact that there were atrocities by the Germans during the war against Americans, or by Americans against Germans, would not in the least lessen our disgrace if such peacetime atrocities were to go unchallenged.
Our specific assignment was not only to examine Col. Everett's charges, but also to examine the cases of the 139 death sentences, which at that time remained unexecuted: 152 Germans had already been executed.
The 139 doomed men who were still alive fell into three groups. They were accused of involvement in the Dachau concentration camp crimes, in the killing of American fliers, or in the Malmedy massacres. Let me say that I believe the crimes for which these Germans were tried actually took place, and that some Germans were guilty of them.
But we should not let the indiscriminate hate of all Germans that was generated during and after the war, blind us to the necessity of punishing the guilty ones only. After this investigation, and after talking to all sides, I do not believe that the German people knew what the German Government was doing. I am convinced the German populace had no idea what diabolical crimes that arch-fiend, Himmler, was committing in the concentration camps. From the atrocities we learned about, he must have been the very prince of devils.
But as for the Germans at large, they fought the war as loyal citizens with a fatherland to support, and a fatherland to defend. Some American fliers, shot down on bombing raids over Germany, were killed by German civilians. These Germans felt that the American fliers were the murderers of their defenseless wives, mothers, and children who were In the bombed cities, – just as the English felt that German fliers were their murderers. That's war.
I felt deeply about these fliers. I had two sons in the Air Force. Jimmy made 35 missions over Germany and returned safe, thank God! Dick made 32 Missions and was finally shot down over Italy. He spent 12 months in a German prisoner-of-war camp and was fairly well treated. He is now in a sanitarium in Arizona recovering from TB he contracted in the camp.
The Malmedy massacres, in which a group of American prisoners of war were mown down after being captured during the Battle of the Bulge, actually happened. But can't we distinguish between the assertion that these atrocities did happen, and the assertion that they were committed by these 74 Germans who had been in or near Malmedy at that time?
Because some wicked sadistic German individuals did it, are we doing the right thing by saying any and all Germans we lay our hands on are guilty and should be destroyed? I personally don't believe that. That's not the way of thinking I learnt in my church, or you learned in your church.
On Russian insistence, the Americans couldn't retry these men. The Russian philosophy in these matters is that the investigators determine the guilt or innocence of the accused, and the judge merely sets the sentence. We accepted the Russian formula of no-retrial, but we won out on the presumption of innocence before trial.
The American prohibition of hear-say evidence had been suspended. Second and third-hand testimony was admitted, although the Judge Advocate General warned against the value of hearsay evidence, especially when it was obtained, as this was. two or three years after the act. Lt. Col. Ellis and Lt Perl of the Prosectution pleaded that it was difficult to obtain competant evidence. Perl told the court, "We had a tough case to crack and we had to use persuasive methods." He admitted to the court that the persuasive methods included various "expedients, including some violence and mock trials." He further told the court that the cases rested on statements obtained by such methods.
The statements which were admitted as evidence were obtained from men who had first been kept in solitary confinement for three, four, and, five months. They were confined between four walls, with no windows, and no opportunity of exercise. Two meals a day were shoved in to them through a slot in the door. They were not allowed to talk to anyone. They had no communication with their families or any minister or priest during that time.
This solitary confinement proved sufficient in itself in some cases to persuade the Germans to sign prepared statements. These statements not only involved the signer, but often would involve other defendants.
Our investigators would put a black hood over the accused's head and then punch him in the face with brass knuckles, kick him, and beat him with rubber hose. Many of the German defendants had teeth knocked out. Some had their jaws broken. All but two of the Germans, in the 139 cases we investigated, had been kicked in the testicles beyond repair. This was Standard Operating Procedure with American investigators.
Perl admitted use of mock trials and persuasive methods including violence and said the court was free to decide the weight to be attached to evidence thus received. But it all went in.
One 18 year old defendant, after a series of beatings. was writing a statement being dictated to him. When they reached the 16th page, the boy was locked up for the night. In the early morning, Germans in nearby cells heard him muttering. "I will not utter another lie." When the jailer came in later to get him to finish his false statement, he found the German hanging from a cell bar, dead. However the tatement that the German had hanged himself to escape signing was offered and received in evidence in the trial of the others.
Sometimes a prisoner who refused to sign was led into a dimly lit room, where a group of civilian investigators, wearing U. S. Army uniforms. were seated around a black table with a crucifix in the center and two candles burning, one on each aide. "You will now have your American trial," the defendant was told.
The sham court passed a sham sentence of death. Then the accused was told, "You will hang in a few days, as soon as the general approves this sentence: but in the meantime sign this confession and we can get you acquitted." Some still wouldn't sign. We were shocked by the crucifix being used so mockingly.
In another case, a bogus Catholic priest (actually an investigator) entered the cell of one of the defendants, heard his confession, gave him absolution, and then gave him a little friendly tip: "Sign whatever the investigators ask you to sign. It will get you your freedom. Even though it's false, I can give you absolution now in advance for the lie you'd tell."
Our final report on these trials has been turned over to Secretary of the Army Royall. In spite of the many instances like those I have described, we found no general conspiracy to obtain evidence improperly. With the exception of 29 cases, we saw no reason why the executions should not be carried out. For the 110 others, there was sufficient competent evidence from other sources to warrant the death penalty, exclusive of the evidence obtained by the third-degree.
The 29 men whose sentences we recommended for commutation certainly did not have a fair trial by American standards. Twenty-seven of them were to have their terms reduced to life, one of them was to get 10 years, and one would get two and one-half years, according to our recommendations. We also recommended a permanent program of clemency for reconsideration of the sentences of other prisoners convicted in war crimes cases.
Secretary Royall has saved our national conscience. Could we as Americans ever have held our heads up if he hadn't looked into it? He has saved our national prestige and our international reputation. However, in spite of Secretary Royall's action in this matter, there is little real room for complacency on the part of Americans. Rather our report reveals, by implication, that we still have a serious situation in Germany to clear up. Moreover, five of the men for whom we recommended commutations have been hanged since we turned in our report. In all 100 of the 139 we set out to investigate are now dead.
The American investigators who committed the atrocities in the name of American Justice and under the American flag are going scot-free. At this point there are two objectives which should be aimed for:American investigators who abused the powers of victory and prostituted justice to vengeance, should be exposed in a public process, preferably in the U. S., and prosecuted. Unless these crimes committed by Americans are exposed by us at home, the prestige of America and American justice will suffer permanent and irreparable damage. We can partially atone for our own misconduct if we first search it out and publicly condemn and disavow it. If we wait for our enemies to blazon our guilt abroad, we can only bow our heads in shamed admission.
Those prisoners whose death sentences have not been commuted and who have not yet been hanged should be saved, pending full judicial review.
Those prisoners whose death sentences have not been commuted and who have not yet been hanged should be saved, pending full judicial review.
EDWARD L. VAN RODEN, a Pennsylvania judge, served in World War I and II, in the latter as Chief of the Military Justice Division for the European Theater where he saw service in Normandy, Belgium, the Rhineland, the Battle of the Bulge, and in the Ardennes. In 1946 he was reassigned to active duty and served on several important court martial trials in Germany. In 1948 Secretary of the Army Royall appointed him to an extraordinary commission charged with investigating the Dachau War Crimes program.
Appendices II to V are extracts from Jean-Claude PRESSAC, Auschwitz: Technique and Operation of the Gas Chambers, Beate Klarsfeld Foundation, New York, 1989.
Memorandum of Martin Luther to Joachim von Ribbentrop, August 21, 1942 (NG-2586-J, in NMT, Volume XIII, pp. 243-249)
The principle of the German Jewish policy after the seizure of power consisted in promoting with all means the Jewish emigration. For this purpose in 1939 Field Marshall Goering in his capacity as Plenipotentiary for the Four Year Plan established a Reich Central Office for Jewish Emigration and the direction was given to SS Lieutenant General Heydrich in his capacity as chief of the Security Police. The Foreign Office is represented in the committee of the Reich Central Office. The draft of a letter to that effect to the Chief of the Security Police was approved by the Reich Foreign Minister as 83/24 B in February 1939.
The present war gives Germany the opportunity and also the duty of solving the Jewish problem in Europe. In consideration of the favorable course of the war against France, D III (department Germany III) proposed in July 1940 as a solution – the removal of all Jews from Europe and the demanding of the Island of Madagascar from France as a territory for the reception of the Jews. The Reich Foreign Minister has basically agreed to the beginning of the preliminary work for the deportation of the Jews from Europe. This should be done in close cooperation with the offices of the Reichsfuehrer-SS (compare D III 200/40).
The Madagascar plan was enthusiastically accepted by the RSHA which in the opinion of the Foreign Office is the agency which alone is in the position technically and by experience to carry out a Jewish evacuation on a large scale and to guarantee the supervision of the people evacuated, the competent agency of the RSHA thereupon worked out a plan going into detail for the evacuation of the Jews to Madagascar and for their settlement there. This plan was approved by the Reichsfuehrer-SS. SS Lieutenant General Heydrich submitted this plan directly to the Reich Foreign Minister in August 1940 (compare D III 2171). The Madagascar plan in fact had been outdated as the result of the political development.
The fact that the Fuehrer intends to evacuate all Jews from Europe was communicated to me as early as August 1940 by Ambassador Abetz after an interview with the Fuehrer (compare D III 2298). Hence the basic instruction of the Reich Foreign Minister, to promote the evacuation of the Jews in closest cooperation with the agencies of the Reichsfuehrer-SS, is still in force and will therefore be observed by D III.
The administration of the occupied territories brought with it the problem of the treatment of Jews living in these territories. First, the military commander in France saw himself compelled as the first one to issue on 27 September 1940 a decree on the treatment of the Jews in occupied France. The decree was issued with the agreement of the German Embassy in Paris. The pertinent instruction was issued directly by the Reich Foreign Minister to Ambassador Abetz on the occasion of a verbal report.After the pattern of the Paris decree similar decrees have been issued in the Netherlands and Belgium. As these decrees, in the same way as German laws concerning Jews, formally embrace all Jews independent of their citizenship objections were made by foreign powers, among others protest notes by the Embassy of the United States of America, although the military commander in France through internal regulation had ordered that the Jewish measures should not be applied to the citizens of neutral countries.
The Reich Foreign Minister has decided in the case of the American protests that he does not consider it right to have military regulations issued for making an exception of the American Jews. It
would be a mistake to reject objections of friendly states (Spain and Hungary) and on the other hand to allow weakness toward the Americans. The Reich Foreign Minister considers it necessary to make these instructions to the Field commanders retroactive (compare D III 5449).In accordance with this direction the Jewish measures have been given general application.In his letter of 24 June 1940 – Pol XII 136 – SS Lieutenant General Heydrich informed the Reich Foreign Minister that the whole problem of the approximately three and a quarter million Jews in the areas under German control can no longer be solved by emigration – a territorial final solution would be necessary.
In recognition of this Reich Marshall Goering on 31 July 1941 commissioned SS Lieutenant General Heydrich to make, in conjunction with the interested German Control agencies, all necessary preparations for a total Solution of the Jewish problem in the German sphere of influence in Europe (compare D III 709 secret). On the basis of this instruction, SS Lieutenant General Heydrich arranged a conference of all the interested German agencies for 20 January 1942, at which the State Secretaries were present from the other ministries and I myself from the Foreign Office. In the conference General Hey[d]rich explained that Reich Marshall Goering's assignment to him had been made on the Fuehrer's instruction and that the Fuehrer instead of the emigration had now authorized the evacuation of the Jews to the East as the solution (compare page 5 of the enclosure to D III 29/42 Secret). State Secretary Weizsaecker had been informed on the conference; for the time being the Reich Foreign Minister had not been informed on the conference, because SS Lieutenant General Heydrich agreed to holding a new conference in the near future in which more details of the total solution should be discussed. This conference has never taken place due to Lieutenant General Heydrich's appointment as acting Reich Protector of Bohemia and Moravia and due to his death.In the conference on 20 January 1942 I demanded that all questions concerned with countries outside Germany must first have the agreement of the Foreign Office, a demand to which SS Lieutenant General Heydrich agreed and also has faithfully complied with, as in fact, the office of the RSHA handling Jewish matters has from the beginning carried out all measures in frictionless cooperation with the Foreign Office. The RSHA has in this matter proceeded indeed almost over cautiously.
On the basis of the Fuehrer's instruction mentioned under 4 (above), the evacuation of the Jews from Germany was begun. It was urged that at the same time these Jews should also be taken who were
nationals of the countries which had also undertaken Jewish measures. The RSHA accordingly made an inquiry of the Foreign Office. For reasons of courtesy, inquiry was made by way of the German legations in Bratislava (Slovakia), Zagreb (Croatia), and Bucharest (Rumania) to the governments there as to whether they wanted to recall their Jews from Germany in due time or to agree to their deportation to the ghettos in the East. To the issuance of this instruction agreement was given before dispatch by the State Secretary, the Under State Secretary in Charge of the Political Division, the Director of the Division for Economic Policy and the Director of the Legal Division (compare D III 336 Secret).The German Legation in Bucharest reports with reference to D III 602 Secret, that the Rumanian Government would leave it to the Reich Government to deport their Jews along with the German Jews to the ghettos in the East. They are not interested in having the Rumanian Jews return to Rumania.
The Legation in Zagreb has informed us that the Croat Government expresses gratitude for the gesture of the German Government; but it would appreciate the deportation of its Jews to the East (compare D III 624 Secret).
The Legation in Bratislava reported with reference to D III 661 Secret that the Slovak government is fundamentally in agreement with the deportation to the eastern ghettos. But the Slovak claims to the property of these Jews should not be endangered.
The wire reports have also been submitted, as customary, to the Reich Foreign Minister's Bureau.
On the basis of the reports of the Ministers I have informed the RSHA with reference to D III 661 Secret that the Jews of Rumanian. Croat, and Slovak nationality could also be deported; their property should be blocked. The Director[s] of the Political Division, Section IV of the Political Division, Section IX of the Legal Division and Section IV of the Division for the Economic Policy have cosigned the document. Accordingly, the deportations of the Jews from the occupied territories was undertaken.The number of Jews deported in this way to the East did not suffice to cover the labor needs there. The RSHA therefore, acting on the instruction of the Reichsfuehrer-SS approached the Foreign Office to ask the Slovak Government to make 20,000 young, strong Slovak Jews from Slovakia available for deportation to the East. The German Legation in Bratislava was provided, by D III 874, with proper instruction. The instruction was signed by the State Secretary, the Under State Secretary in charge of the Political Division, and Section IV of the Political Division.
The Legation in Bratislava reported re D III 1002 that the Slovak Government has taken up the suggestion eagerly; the preparatory work could be begun.Following up this pleased concurrence of the Slovak Government, the Reichsfuehrer-SS proposed that the rest of the Slovak Jews also be deported to the East and Slovakia thereby be made free of Jews. The Legation was, re D III 1559 Aug. 11, provided with proper instruction. The draft of the instruction was signed by the State Secretary: after its dispatch it was submitted for their information to the bureau of the Reich foreign Minister and the Under State Secretary in charge of the Political Division.
As the Slovak Episcopacy meanwhile raised objections to the deportation of the Jews before the Slovak Government the instruction carries the express statement that in no case must there develop internal political difficulties on account of the evacuation of the Jews in Slovakia. By the telegraphic report, re D III 2006 the Legation reported that the Slovak Government, without any German pressure, has declared itself agreeable to the deportation of all Jews and that the State President agreed personally to the deportation. The telegraphic record was submitted to the bureau of the Reich Foreign Minister. The Slovak Government has furthermore agreed that it will pay as a contribution to the cost entailed DM 500 for every evacuated Jew.In the meantime 52,000 Jews have been removed from Slovakia. Due to church influences and the corruption of individual officials 35,000 Jews have received a special legitimation. However, Minister President Tuka wants the Jewish removal continued and therefore has asked for support through diplomatic pressure by the Reich (compare D III 3865). The Ambassador is authorized to give this diplomatic help in that he may state to State President Dr. Tiso that the exclusion of the 35,000 Jews is a surprise in Germany, the more so since the cooperation of Slovakia up to now in the Jewish problem has been highly appreciated here. This instruction has been cosigned by the Under State Secretary in charge of the Political Division, and the State Secretary.
The Croat Government is likewise fundamentally agreeable to the removal of the Jews from Croatia. It especially considers the deportation of the four to five thousand Jews from the Italian occupied Second Zone (centered around Dubrovnik and Mostar) to be important, as they represent a political burden and their elimination would serve the general pacification. The removal can of course take place only with German aid, as difficulties are to be expected from the Italian side. There have been practical examples of resistance to the Croat measures by Italian officials on behalf of well-to-do Jews. Furthermore the Italian Chief of Staff in Mostar has said that he cannot approve the removal since all the people living in Mostar have been assured of the same treatment.Since meanwhile according to a telephone communication from Zagreb, the Croat Government has given its written approval of the proposed measure. Minister Kasche thinks it right to begin with the removal, and in fact to begin for the whole country. One could therefore take the risk of having difficulties develop in the course of the action, so far as concerns the zone occupied by Italians.
A report for the Reich Foreign Minister to this effect (D III 562 Secret) has been held up by State Secretary von Weizsaecker since he considered an inquiry should first be made at the Embassy in Rome. The answer has not been received.
The problem of the Italian Jews has come up in the same way in connection with the evacuation of the Jews in France. Ambassador Abetz points out in connection with the deportation in preparation from the Occupied French Territory that there was an urgent political interest to take the foreign Jews first in the evacuation measures. Since these Jews were regarded as foreign bodies they were already especially hated and passing them over and giving them thereby a quasi privileging would cause bad feeling, the more so since among them were to be found responsible instigators of Jewish terror and sabotage acts. It was regrettable that the Axis appeared exactly in this point to pursue no uniform policy.If the evacuation of the foreign Jews were not immediately possible, the Italian Government should be for the time being asked to repatriate their Jews from France. On the Italian side economic interests appear to play a decisive role. The safeguarding of these interests however is [entir]ely possible, so that on this point there needs to be no obstacle to the planned solution.
On this question of the Italian Jews in France a conference record of 24 July, re D III 562 Secret, has been submitted to the Reich Foreign Minister. On the occasion of a reception by the Reich Foreign Minister on 26 November 1941 the Bulgarian Foreign Minister Popoff touched on the problem of according like treatment to the Jews of European nationalities and pointed out the difficulties that the Bulgarians had in the application of their Jewish laws to Jews of foreign nationality.The Reich Foreign Minister answered that he thought this question brought up by Mr. Popoff not uninteresting. Even now he could say one thing to him, that at the end of this war all Jews would
have to leave Europe. This was an unalterable decision of the Fuehrer and also the only way to master this problem, as only a global and comprehensive solution could be applied and individual measures would not help very much. Furthermore, one should not attribute too much worth to the protests on behalf of the Jews of foreign nationality. At any rate, we would not let ourselves be taken in any further by such protests from the American side. He – the Reich Foreign Minister – would have the problem described by Mr. Popoff investigated by the Foreign Office.The Reich Foreign Minister commissioned me to undertake the investigation promised (compare D III 660g) (document NG-4669).
I should like to make reference to my basic conference memorandum of 4 December 1941, re D III 660 Secret, which I am dispatching, together with the proper files. This conference memorandum was held up by the State Secretary, because he considered a further examination by the Legal Division first necessary. In their opinion the German-Bulgarian trade and shipping pact was not in agreement with the German-Bulgarian arrangements proposed by me. I therefore notified the German Legation in Sofia, re D III 497 Secret, under date of 19 June, in reference to the suggestion of the Bulgarian Foreign Minister Popoff at his reception to contact the Bulgarian Government and find out whether it was prepared to come to an agreement in the Jewish problem that there should be no rights from the trade and shipping pact given effect in favor of the Jews in the piuiilisc [aaargh: purpose?] of reciprocality.If the question is put from the Bulgarian side as to whether Germany is ready to deport Jews from
Bulgaria to the east, the question should be answered in the affirmative but in respect to the time of the deporting should be answered evasively. This decree was cosigned by the State Secretary, the Under State Secretary, the Director of the Political Division, the Director of the Division for Economic Policy,Section IV of the Political Division, Section IV of the Division for Economic Policy, and also by Ribbentrop. The Legation exchanged notes with the Bulgarian Government and reported that the Bulgarian Government is fundamentally prepared in the problem of the evacuation to sign an agreement with us, hereby the basis is given to include the Bulgarian Jews in the Jewish measures. (D III 559 Secret and 569 Secret).
The Hungarian Government has not yet been approached with respect to the Jewish removal, because the status of the Hungarian legislation up to the present does not promise a sufficient success. In accordance with the agreement of the Rumanian Government mentioned under 8 the evacuation of the Rumanian Jews from Germany and the occupied territories was begun, whereupon various Rumanian consulates and the Rumanian Minister in Berlin, who had no instructions from their Government, intervened. Ambassador von Killinger was therefore asked for clarification. The Legation seems to have made use of the Jewish advisor assigned to it, Richter, for this purpose. He is a person to whom the Rumanian Government confirmed its earlier agreement to the inclusion of the Rumanian Jews in the German measures and to whom the Deputy Ministry President Mihai Antonescu informed of the request of the Marshall that the German agencies should also carry out the removal from Rumania itself and should be then [aaargh: begin?] immediately with the transport of the Jews from the areas Arad, Timisoara and Turda.For details may I refer to my conference memorandum of 17 August ad D III 649. II.
At the request of the governments concerned, the legations in Bratislava, Zagreb and Bucharest have been assigned advisors for Jewish affairs. They have been made available at the request of the Foreign Office by the RSHA. Their assignment is for a limited time. It ends as soon as the Jewish problem in the country concerned can be regarded as solved in the German sense. Originally it was regarded as solved as soon as the country concerned had issued Jewish laws similar to the German ones. Accordingly Richter was recalled from Rumania last year by the RSHA. At the urgent request of the legation in Bucharest, Richter was again assigned to the legation despite the objection of the RSHA. This was done with the express intention of having him remain there until the actual final solution in Rumania (D III 1703 Secret and 1893 Secret). . .Since all negotiations with the Rumanian Government went through the Foreign Office, the report of SS First Lieutenant Richter submitted by the Reichsfuehrer-SS should be considered only as an internal work report to the RSHA. The unusual procedure of having the confirmation of a final conference in the handwriting of the Deputy Minister President was sharply objected to immediately through the directive of the 17th of this month; the official handling of the affair must be carried out immediately.
The files have been submitted there already under D III 659 Secret. The intended deportations are a further step forward on the way of the total solution and are in respect to other countries (Hungary) very important. The deportation to the Government General is a temporary measure. The Jews will be moved on further to the occupied Eastern Territories as soon as the technical conditions for it are given.I therefore request approval for the continuation of the negotiations and measures under these
terms and according to the arrangement made.
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- , Hitler's War (1988 Papermac edition, London. First published 1977) - , Hitler's War (1991 Focal Point edition, London) - , Nürnberg: die letzte Schlacht (Munich: Wilhelm Heyne, 1979) - , The Destruction of Convoy PQ 17 (London: Cassell & Co., 1967) - , The Destruction of Dresden (London: William Kimber, 1963) - , The War Path: Hitler's Germany 1933-1939 (1988 Papermac edition. First published 1978) - , Und Deutschlands Städte Starben Nicht (Schweizer Druck und Verlagshaus GmbH, 1961) - , Uprising! One Nation's Nightmare: Hungary 1956, Second edition, 1986 (Bullsbrook: Veritas Publishing Co. First published by Hodder and Stoughton, 1981) - , The Trail of the Fox: The Life of Field Marshall Erwin Rommel (London: Weidenfeld and Nicolson, 1977)
- Kennedy, J. F., Profiles in Courage (New York: Harper, 1955)
- Kulka, E. The Holocaust is being denied, Translated by Lilli Kapecky (Tel Aviv: the Committee of Auschwitz Camp Survivors in Israel, 1977)
- Klarsfeld, S. (ed.), The Holocaust and the Neo-Nazi Mythomania (New York: The Beate Klarsfeld Foundation, 1978)
- , Le mémorial de la déportation des Juifs de France (Paris: Klarsfeld, 1978)
- Knopp, G. (ed.), Hitler Heute: Gespräche über ein deutsches Trauma (Aschaffenburg: Paul Pattloch Verlag, 1979)
- Kogon, E., Der SS-Staat (Stockholm: Bermann-Fischer Verlag, 1947)
- Kogon, E., Langbein, H., Rückerl, A., et al. (eds.), Nationalsozialistische Massentötungen durch Giftgas: Eine Dokumentation (Frankfurt am Main: S. Fischer Verlag GmbH, 1983)
- Krausnick, H. and Wilhelm, H., Die Truppe des Weltanschauungskrieges: Die Einsatzgruppen der Sicherheitspolizei und des SD, 19382-1942 (Stuttgart: Deutsche Verlags-Anstalt, 1981)
- Kushner, T., The Persistence of Prejudice: Antisemitism in British Society During the Second World War (Manchester University Press, 1978) [aaargh: 1989?]
- Lane, M., Plausible Denial: Was the CIA Involved in the Assassination of JFK? (New York: Thunder's Mouth Press, 1991)
- Laqueur, W., The Terrible Secret (London: Weidenfeld and Nicolson, 1980)
- Le Chêne, E., Mauthausen: The History of a Death Camp (London: Methuen and Co., Ltd., 1971)
- Lenski, R., The Holocaust On Trial: The Case of Ernst Zündel (Decatur: Reporter Press, 1990)
- Levesque, R., Memoirs (Toronto: McClelland and Stewart Ltd., 1986)
- Lilienthal, A. M., The Zionist Connection II: What Price Peace? (Bullsbrook: Veritas Publishing Company (Pty.) Ltd., 1983)
- Lipsitz, E. Y. (ed.) Canadian Jewry Today: Who's Who in Canadian Jewry (Downsview, Ontario: J.E.S.L. Education Products, 1989)
- Littel, M. S. (ed.). Holocaust Education. A Resource Book for Teachers and Professional Leaders. Symposium Series Volume 13 (New York and Toronto: The Edwin Mellen Press, 1985)
- Lochner, L. (ed.), Goebbels - Taschenbücher aus den Jahren 1942-43 (Zurich: Atlantis Verlag, 1948)
- Loftus, E. and Ketchum, K., Witness for the Defense (New York: St. Martins Press, 1991)
- Loftus, E., Memory: Surprising new insights into how we remember and why we forget (Reading, Mass., and other centres: Addison-Wesley Publishing Co., 1980)
- Marrus, M. R., The Holocaust in History (Toronto: Lester & Orpen Dennys, 1987)
- Marsalek, H., Die Geschichte des Konzentrationslagers Mauthausen: Dokumentation, 1980 Edition (Vienna: Österreichische Lagergemeinschaft Mauthausen, 1974)
- Marschalko, L., The World Conquerors: The Real War Criminals. Translated from the Hungarian by A. Suranyi (London: Joseph Sueli Publications, 1958)
- Marwick, A., The Nature of History, Third Edition (London: Macmillan, 1989)
- Mason, A. T., Harlan Fiske Stone: Pillar or the Law (New York: Viking Press, 1956)
- Mayer, A. J., Why Did the Heavens Not Darken? The "Final Solution" in History (New York: Pantheon Books, 1988)
- Nazi Conspiracy and Aggression, 8 volumes plus 2 supplementary volumes, A and B (Washington, D.C.: U.S. Government Printing Office, 1946-1948)
- Nyiszli, M., Auschwitz: A Doctor's Eye-witness Account (London: Grafton Books, 1973. First published in a Hungarian edition, 1946?)
- Padfield, P., Himmler: Reichsführer SS (London: Macmillan, 1990)
- Paget, R., Manstein: His Campaigns and His trials (London: Collins, 1951)
- Pakenham, T., The Boer War (London: Cardinal, 1991. First published 1979)
- Picker, H., Hitlers Tischgespräche im Führerhauptquartier 1941-42 (Munich: 1981 Goldmann edition)
- Poliakov, L., Harvest or Hate (New York: Schocken Books, 1979)
- Poison, C. J. and Tattersall, R. N., Clinical Toxicology (Philadelphia: Lippincott, 1969)
- Porter, C. W., Made in Russia: The Holocaust (Historical Review Press, 1988. No publishing centre named)
- Pressac. J-C., Auschwitz: Technique and Operation of the Gas Chambers (New York: The Beate Klarsfeld Foundation, 1989)
- Raab, E., The Anatomy or Nazism (New York: Anti-Defamation League, 1981)
- Rassinier, P., Debunking the Genocide Myth: A Study of Nazi Concentration Camps and the Alleged Extermination of European Jewry, translated from the French by Adam Robbins (Los Angeles, Noontide Press, 1978)
- , The Real Eichmann Trial or the Incorrigible Victors (Southam, Warks: Historical Review Press, 1979. First published in French, 1962) - , Le Passage de la Ligne (Editions Bressanes, 1950) - , Le Mensonge d'Ulysse (La Librairie Française, 1961)
- Reitlinger, G., The Final Solution: The Attempt to Exterminate the Jews of Europe, 1939-1945 (London: Valentine Mitchell, 1953)
- Roques, H., The 'Confessions' of Kurt Gerstein (Costa Mesa: Institute for Historical Review, 1989)
- Roth, J. K., Berenbaum M. (eds.), Holocaust: Religious & Philosophical Implications (New York, Paragon House, 1989)
- Rückerl, A. (ed.), NS-Vernichtungslager im Spiegel deutscher Strafprozesse: Belzec, Sobibor, Treblinka, Chelmno (Munich: Deutsche Taschenbuch Verlag, 1979. First published 1977)
- Sanning, W., The Dissolution of Eastern European Jewry, 3rd edition (Costa Mesa: Institute for Historical Review, 1990)
- Scholle, R., Schutzraumabschlüsse (Berlin: Verlag von Wilhelm Ernst & Sohn, 1939)
- Seidel. G.. The Holocaust Denial: Antisemitism, Racism and the New Right (Leeds: Beyond the Pale Collective, 1986)
- Sereny, G., Into That Darkness: from Mercy Killing to Mass Murder (London: A. Deutsch, 1974)
- Shapiro, S. (ed.). Truth Prevai1s. Demolishing Holocaust Denial: the end of "The Leuchter Report" (New York: The Beate Klarsfeld Foundation and Holocaust Survivors and Friends in Pursuit of Justice, 1990)
- Singerman, R., Antisemitic Propaganda: An Annotated Bibliography and Research Guide (New York and London: Garland Publishing, Inc., 1982)
- Smith, B. R., Confessions of a Holocaust Revisionist: Part One (Los Angeles: Prima Facie, 1987)
- Solzhenitsyn, A., The Gulag Archipelago (New York: Harper and Row, 1973)
- Stäglich, W., Auschwitz: A judge looks at the evidence (Torrance: Institute for Historical Review, 1986)
- , Der Auschwitz Mythos: Legende oder Wirklichkeit (Tübingen: Grabert-Verlag, 1979)
- Suzman, A. and Diamond, D., Six Million Did Die: The Truth Shall Prevail (Johannesburg: Committee of the South African Jewish Board of Deputies, 1977)
- Thomson, D., The Aims of History: Values of the Historical Attitude (London: Thames and Hudson, 1969)
- Tillion, G., Ravensbrück (New York: Anchor/Doubleday, 1975)
- Timerman, J., The Longest War (New York: Vintage, 1982)
- Trial of the Major War Criminals Before the International Military Tribunal, Nuremberg 14 November 1945 - 1 October 1946, 42 volumes (Nuremberg, 1947-1949)
- Trials of War Criminals Before the Nuremberg Military Tribunal Under Control Council Law No. 10. Nuernberg October 1946 - April 1949, 15 Volumes (U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, D.C., 1949-53)
- Vrba, R. and Bestic, A., I Cannot Forgive! (New York: Grove, 1964)
- Vidal-Naquet, P., Les Juifs, la mémoire et le présent (Paris: Petite Collection Maspero, 1980)
- Walendy, U., Forged War Crimes malign the German Nation (Vlotho/Weser: Verlag für Volkstum und Zeitgeschichtsforschung, 1979)
- , The Methods of Reeducation (Vlotho/Weser: Verlag für Volkstum und Zeitgeschichtsforschung, 1979) - , Auschwitz im IG Farben Prozess - "Holocaust"-Dokumente? (Vlotho/Weser: Verlag für Volkstum und Zeitgeschichtsforschung, 1979) - , Bild-"Dokumente" für die Geschichtsschreibung? (Vlotho/Weser: Verlag für Volkstum und Zeitgeschichtsforschung, 1973) - , Die Methoden der Umerziehung (Richmond, Surrey: Historical Review Press, 1976) - , Der moderne Index (Vlotho/Weser: Verlag für Volkstum und Zeitgeschichtsforschung, 1980) - , Der Verrat an Osteuropa (Vlotho/Weser: Verlag für Volkstum und Zeitgeschichtsforschung, 1977) - , Europa in Flammen, 1939-1945 (Vlotho/Weser: Verlag für Volkstum und Zeitgeschichtsforschung), Volume l (1966); Volume II (1967) - , Holocaust nun unterirdisch? (Vlotho/Weser: Verlag für Volkstum und Zeitgeschichtsforschung, 1981) - , Wahrheit für Deutschland - Die Schuldfrage des Zweiten Weltkriegs (Vlotho/Weser: Verlag für Volkstum und Zeitgeschichtsforschung, 1964)
- Weber, C. E., The 'Holocaust': 120 Questions and Answers (Torrance: Institute for Historical Review, 1983)
- Weimann, G. and Winn, C., Hate On Trial: The Zundel Affair, the Media Public Opinion in Canada (Oakville/New York/London: Mosaic Press, 1985)
- Wiesenthal, S., Justice: not Vengeance, translated from the German by Ewald Osers (London: Mandarin, 1989)
- Wilcox, L., Guide to the American Left: Directory and Bibliography (Olathe, Kansas: Laird Wilcox Editorial Research Service, 1991)
- , Guide to the American Right: Directory and Bibliography (Olathe, Kansas: Laird Wilcox Editorial Research Service, 1991)
- Wilkinson, P., The New Fascists (London: Pan, 1983)
- Wormser-Migot O., Le Système concentrationnaire nazi 1933-1945 (Presses Universitaires de France, 1968)
- Wyman, D., The Abandonment of the Jews: America and the Holocaust, 1941-1945 (New York: Pantheon Books, 1984)
- Young, J. E., Writing and Rewriting the Holocaust: Narrative and the Consequences of Interpretation (Indiana University Press, 1978)
Surveys and Reports
- Amoklauf gegen die Wirklichkeit: NS-Verbrechen und "revisionistische" Geschichtsschreibung (Vienna: Dokumentationsarchiv des österreichischen Widerstandes, Bundesministerium für Unterricht und Kunst, 1991)
- Anti-Semitism and Human Rights The Proceedings of a Seminar Held in Melbourne on June 10-11, 1984, under the Auspices of the Australian Institute of Jewish Affairs and the History Department of Melbourne university (Melbourne: Australian Institute of Jewish Affairs, 1985)
- Buchenwald: A Preliminary Report, by Fleck, E. W. and Tenenbaum, E. A.. U.S. Army, 12th Army Group, April 24, 1945. National Archives, Record Group 331, SHAEF, G-5, 17.11, Jacket 10, Box 151 (8929/163-8929/180)
- Canadian Criminal Cases (Third Series) A Series of Reports on Important Decisions in Criminal and Olinsi [aaargh: Other ?] Criminal Cases, Volume 31 (Aurora: Canada Law Book Inc., 1987)
- Dachau Concentration Camp (OSS Section, United States 7th Army, 1945)
- Das Lachout-"Dokument" - Anatomie einer Fälschung (Vienna: Dokumentationsarchiv des österreichischen Widerstandes, 1989)
- Days of Remembrance: A Department of Defence Guide For Commemorative Observances - Office of the Secretary of Defense (Washington, D.C.: USGPO, 1988)
- Debate on the War Crimes Inquiry Report, 4 December 1989, The Parliamentary Debates: House of Lords Official Reports (Hansard), Volume 513 (8)
- Denial of Holocaust (Prohibition Law) 5746-1986. Passed by the Knesset on Tammuz 1, 5746 (July 8, 1986) and published in Sefer HaChukkim, Number 1187 of Tammuz 9, 5746 (July 16, 1986)
- Denying the Holocaust, Paper no. 3, delivered by Yisrael Gutman at the Study Circle on World Jewry at the Residence of the President of Israel, May 13, 1984 (Series 14, 1984-1985). Vidal Sassoon International Centre for the Study of Antisemitism, Jerusalem, Israel, 1985
- Dossier on a 'Revisionist' Crank (Torrance: Institute for Historical Review, 1984)
- Extremism on the Right: A Handbook Special Report, Anti-Defamation League of B'nai B'rith, New York, 1988.
- For the Dead and the Living We Must Bear Witness (Washington, D.C.: U.S. Holocaust Memorial Council, 1990)
- German Extermination Camps. Report from the New Zealand Legation in Moscow (Wellington: New Zealand Department of External Affairs, 1945)
- Holocaust "Revisionism": Reinventing the Big Lie, Anti-Defamation League Research Report (New York: Anti-Defamation League of B'nai B'rith, 1989)
- Luftschutz durch Bauen (Berlin: Bauweltverlag, 1939)
- Motion no. 999, David Irving and Holocaust Denial, June 20, 1989. Session 1988-1989, House of Commons
- Preliminary Report on Neo-Fascist and Hate Groups, December 17, 1954. Prepared and released by the Committee on Un-American Activities. US House of Representatives, Washington, D.C.
- Report of the Committee requested by General Dwight D. Eisenhower to the Congress of the United States relative to atrocities and other conditions in concentration camps, May 15, 1945. United States Senate, 79th Congress, 1st Session. Document 47 (Washington, D.C., 1945)
- Report on the Speech to the General [aaargh: Assembly?] by His Excellency the delegate from Saudi Arabia, Jamil Baroody on March 14/15, 1976. U. N. Security Council S/PV 1897, 1976.
- The German Extermination Camps of Auschwitz and Birkenau: Two Eye-Witness Reports (Washington, D.C.: War Refugee Board, Executive Office of the President, November 1944)
- The Holocaust Revisited: A Retrospective Analysis of the Auschwitz-Birkenau Extermination Complex Prepared by Brugioni, D. and Poirier, R. (Washington, D.C.: Central Intelligence Agency, 1979)
- The 1989 IHR Conference: White-Washing Genocide "Scientifically". An ADL Fact-Finding Report (New York Anti-Defamation League, 1989)
- The League of Rights. An Examination of Australia's Foremost Organisation Promoting Racial and Religious Hatred (Melbourne: The Executive Council of Australian Jewry, 1985)
- The Lachout-"Document": Anatomy of a Forgery (Vienna: Dokumentationsarchiv des österreichischen Widerstandes, 1990)
- The Leuchter Report: An Engineering Report on the Alleged Execution Gas Chambers at Auschwitz, Birkenau and Majdanek, Poland (Toronto: Samisdat Publishers, 1988)
- The Holocaust, Six Million Lies? by D. Green. Education Papers, Report Series 1, No. 2 (Christchurch: Opposition to Anti-Semitism, Inc., 1991)
- The Record: The Holocaust in History, 1933-1945 (New York: Anti-Defamation League, 1978)
- The Zionist Terror Network: Background and operations of the Jewish Defense League (Torrance: Institute for Historical Review, 1985)
- "Torpedo Running": Twenty-five years of David Irving's writing career (London: Focal Point Publications, 1987)
- Worldwide Growth and Impact of 'Holocaust' Revisionism, IHR Special Report (Costa Mesa: Institute for Historical Review, 1987)
Yearbooks, Journals and Periodicals
- Arndt, I and Scheffler, W., "Organisierter Massenmord an Juden in Nationalsozialistischen Vernichtungslagern: Ein Beitrag zur Richtigstellung apologetischer Literatur", Vierteljahrshefte für Zeitgeschichte 24, no. 2 (April 1976), pp. 105-35
- Aynat, F., "Neither Trace Nor Proof: The Seven Auschwitz 'Gassing' Sites", The Journal of Historical Review, Volume Eleven, Number Two, Summer 1991, pp. 177-206
- Barnes, I. R., "Other Neo-Fascist Strategies", Politics I, Number 1, 1981, pp. 24-29
- Benson, I., "Russia 1917-1918: A Key to the Riddle of an Age of Conflict", The Journal of Historical Review, Volume Ten, Number Three, Fall 1990, pp. 323-351
- Berg, F. P., "The Diesel Gas Vans: Myth Within A Myth", The Journal of Historical Review, Volume Five, Number One, Spring 1984, pp. 15-46
- Berger, A. L., "Academia and the Holocaust", Judaism: A Quarterly Journal, Issue no. 121, Volume 31, Number 2, Spring 1982, pp. 166-176
- Bird, K. and Irving, D., "Reviewed vs. Reviewer", New Statesman, May 8, 1981, pp. 23-26
- Breitbart, A., "The Nature of Holocaust Revisionism", The 1986 Jewish Directory and Almanac (New York: Pacific Press, 1985), pp. 122-123
- Broszat, M., "Hitler and the Genesis of the ëFinal Solution': An Assessment of David Irving's Theses", in Koch, H. W. (ed.). Aspects of the Third Reich (London: Macmillan, 1985), pp. 390-429
- , "Hitler und die Genesis der "Endlosung": Aus Anlaß der Thesen von David Irving", Vierteljahrshefte für Zeitgeschichte, 25 (1977), pp. 739-775
- Browning, C., "Zur Genesis der Endlösung": Eine Antwort an Martin Broszat", Vierteljahrshefte für Zeitgeschichte 29 (1981), pp. 97-109
- , "Nazi Resettlement Policy and the Search for a Solution to the Jewish Question, 1939-1942", German Studies Review, Vol. 9, 1986, pp. 497-519
- Bushkoff, L., "The Revised Hitler", Commentary, September 1977, pp. 76-78
- Dawidowicz, L. S., "Lies About the Holocaust", Commentary, December 1980, pp. 31-37
- Dinur, B., "Problems confronting "Yad Washem" in its Work of Research", Yad Washem [sic] Studies on the European Jewish Catastrophe [and Resistance] (Jerusalem, 1957), pp. 7-30
- Eley, G., "Nazism, Politics and the Image of the Past: thoughts of the West German Historikerstreit 1986-1987", Past and Present. November 1988, pp. 171-208
- Faurisson, R., "Auschwitz: Technique and operation of the Gas Chambers ou Bricolage et «gazouillages» à Auschwitz et à Birkenau selon J. C. Pressac", Revue díHistoire Révisionniste, Number 3, November-December 1990-January 1991, pp. 65-115
- , "How the British Obtained the Confessions of Rudolf Höss", The Journal of Historical Review, Volume Seven, Number Four, Winter 1986-1987, pp. 389-403 - , "Le second rapport Leuchter avec préface et bibliographie critique de ROBERT FAURISSON", Revue díHistoire Révisionniste, Number 1, May-June-July 1990, pp. 51-114 - , "My Life as a Revisionist", The Journal of Historical Review, Volume Nine, Number One, Spring 1989, pp. 5-63 - , "Revisionism on Trial: Developments in France, 1979-1983", The Journal of Historical Review, Volume Six, Number Two, Summer 1985, pp. 133-182 - , "The Müller Document", The Journal of Historical Review, Volume Eight, Number One, Spring 1988, pp. 117-136 - , "The Zündel Trials (1985 and 1988)", The Journal of Historical Review, Volume Ten, Number Four, Winter 1988/1989, pp. 417-431
- Fresco, N., "Les redresseurs de morts", Les Temps Modernes, June 1980, pp. 2150-2211
- Halow, J., "Innocent in Dachau: The Trial and Punishment of Franz Kofler et al.", The Journal of Historical Review, Volume Nine, Number Four, Winter 1989-1990, pp. 453-483
- Hayward, J. S. A., "Holocaust Revisionism in New Zealand: The 'Thinking Man's Anti-Semitism?'", Without Prejudice (Journal of the Australian Institute of Jewish Affairs), Number 4, December 1991, pp. 38-49
- Hofer, W., "Fifty Years On: Historians and the Third Reich", Journal of Contemporary History, Volume 21, Number 2, April 1986, pp. 226-226
- Hoffman, M. A. (II), "The Psychology and Epistemology of 'Holocaust' Newspeak", The Journal of Historical Review, Volume Six, Number 4, Winter 1985-86, pp. 467-78
- Irving, D., "On Contemporary History and Historiography", The Journal of Historical Review, Volume Five, Numbers 2, 3, 4/Winter 1984, pp. 251-288
- , "Battleship Auschwitz", The Journal of Historical Review, Volume Ten, Number Four, Winter 1990-91, pp. 491-508 - , "Hitler's War. An Introduction to the New Edition", The Journal of Historical Review, Volume Ten, Number Four, Winter 1990-91, pp. 389-416
- Joffe, J., "The Battle of the Historians: A Report from Germany", Encounter 69, June 1987 [aaargh: pp. 72-77]
- Kazin, A., "Americans Right, Left and Indifferent: Responses to the Holocaust", Dimensions: A Journal of Holocaust Studies, Volume 4, Number 1, 1988, pp. 9-14
- Korman, G., "The Holocaust in American Historical Writing", Societas 2, Summer 1972, pp. 251-270
- Kvam, R., "Among Two Hundred Survivors from Auschwitz", Judaism: A Quarterly Journal, Issue no. III, Volume 28, Number 3, Summer 1979, pp. 283-292
- Leuchter, F. A. and Faurisson, R., "The Second Leuchter Report", The Journal of Historical Review, Volume Ten, Number Three, Fall 1990, pp. 261-322
- Leuchter, F. A., "Witch Hunt in Boston", The Journal of Historical Review, Volume Ten, Number Four, Winter 1990-1991
- , The Third Leuchter Report: A Technical Report on the Execution Gas Chamber at Mississippi State Penitentiary, Parchman, Mississippi (Toronto: Samisdat Publishers, 1989) - , The Fourth Leuchter Report: An Engineering Evaluation of Jean-Claude Pressac's Book "Auschwitz: Technique and Operation of the Gas Chambers" (Boston: Fred A. Leuchter Ass., Inc., 1991)
- Lipstadt, D. E., "Deniers, Relativists, and Pseudo-Scholarship", Dimensions: A Journal of Holocaust Studies, Volume 6, Number 1, pp. 4-9
- Loftus, E. F., "The Malleability of Human Memory", American Scientist, Volume 67, No. 3, May-June 1979, pp. 312-320
|- ,||"Perversions of the Holocaust", Commentary, October 1989, pp. 56-60|
- Mann, C. C., "Hitler A Clue to History", Judaism: A Quarterly Journal, Issue no. 145, Volume 37, Number I, Winter 1988, pp. 9-21
- Marcellus, T., "Circuitous Suppression", The Journal of Historical Review, Volume Nine, Number One, Spring 1989, pp. 116-125
- Mattogno, C., "Jean-Claude Pressac and the War Refugee Board Report", The Journal of Historical Review, Volume Ten, Number Four, Winter 1990-91. pp. 461-485
- Prutschi, M., "Holocaust Denial Today" in Lipsitz, E. Y. (ed.), Canadian Jewry Today: Who's Who in Canadian Jewry (Downsview, Ontario: J.E.S.L. Education Products, 1989), pp. 30-36
- Rubenstein, W., "Profile: John Bennett", Without Prejudice, The Journal of the Australian Institute of Australian Affairs, Volume I, Number 2, February 1991, pp. 47-51
- Sereny, G., "The Men Who Whitewash Hitler", New Statesman, November 2, 1979, pp. 670-673
- Silverberg, M., "The Holocaust and the Historical Revisionists", Journal of Jewish Commune Service, Volume 59, Fall 1982, pp. 16-25
- Smith, B. F., "Two Alibis for the Inhumanities: A. R. Butz, The Hoax of the. Twentieth Century and David Irving, Hitlers War", German Studies Review, [Volume] I, October 1978, pp. 327-335
- Stäglich, W., "'Der Auschwitz Mythos': A Book and Its Fate in the German Federal Republic", The Journal of Historical Review, Volume Five, Number One, Spring 1984, p. 49
- Sydnor, C. W., "The Selling of Adolf Hitler: David Irving's Hitler's War", Central European History, Volume XD, Number 2, June 1979, pp. 169-199
- Van Roden, E., "American Atrocities in Germany", The Progressive, February 1949, pp. 21-22
- Vidal-Naquet, P., "Un Eichmann de papier", Esprit, September 1980, pp. 8-52
- Weber, M., "An Open Letter to the Rev. Mark Herbener", Journal of Historical Review, Volume Eight, Number Two, Summer 1988, pp. 173-184
- , "Buchenwald: Legend and Reality", The Journal of Historical Review, Volume Seven, Number Four, Winter 1986-87, pp. 405-417 - , "Jewish Soap", The Journal of Historical Review, Volume Eleven, Number Two, Summer 1991, pp. 217-227 - , "Reviewing a Year of Progress", The Journal of Historical Review, Volume Ten, Number Four, Winter 1990-91, pp. 439-452 - , "The Civil War Concentration Camps", The Journal of Historical Review, Summer 1981, pp. 137-153 - , "The Nuremberg Trials and the Holocaust", The Journal of Historical Review, Volume Twelve, Number Two, Summer 1992, pp. 167-213
- Wellers, G., "A propos du «rapport Leuchter» les chambres à gaz d'Auschwitz", Le Monde Juif, No. 134, April-June 1989, pp. 45-53
- Wilson, C., "The Fuehrer in Perspective", Books and Bookmen, November 1974, pp. 28-31
Pamphlets and leaflets
- App, A. J., The Six Million Swindle: Blackmailing the German People for Hard Marks with Fabricated Corpses (Takoma Park, Maryland: Boniface Press, 1973)
- Auschwitz: A Crime Against Mankind (a booklet available to tourists at Auschwitz, Poland) (Oswiecim: Auschwitz State Museum, 1985)
- For The Dead And The Living We Must Bear Witness (Washington, D.C.: Information booklet published by the United States Holocaust Memorial Council, 1990)
- Memorial Site Concentration Camp Dachau (a pamphlet handed out to Dachau visitors) (Dachau: The International Dachau Committee, n.d.)
- Shepherd, E., The Six Myths (New York: National Citizens Union, 1965? )
- The Big Lie: Who Told It? (Arlington, Va.: National Socialist White Peoples Party, 1961? )
- The Diary of Ann Fink (Arlington, Va.: Hoax Busters Press, 1961? )
- The Record: The Holocaust in History, 1933-1945, Reprint 1985 (Published by the Anti-Defamation League of B'nai B'rith in Cooperation with the National Council for the Social Studies, 1978)
The following pamphlets were issued as a series in 1989 and 1990 by the Institute for Historical
- Faurisson. R., A Prominent False Witness: Elie Wiesel
- , The Problem of the Gas Chambers
- Leuchter, F. A., Inside the Auschwitz "Gas Chambers"
- Marcellus, T., The Tradition of Historical Revisionism
- O'Keefe, T., The "Liberation or the Camps" FACTS vs. LIES
- Weber, M., Auschwitz: Myths and Facts
- , Simon Wiesenthal: "Bogus Nazi Hunter" - , The Holocaust: Let's hear both sides, 66 questions on the Holocaust
Newspapers, Magazines and Newsletters
- Adelaide Advertiser, April 21, 1983
- Allgemeine Jüdische Wochenzeitung, July 13, 1973
- Australian Jewish News, July 27, 1990; March 15, 1991; April 26, 1991
- B'nai B'rith Messenger, April 12, 1985; October 26, 1990
- Books and Bookmen, November 1974; January 1975; February 1975; April 1975; May 1975
- Boston Sunday Herald, February 24, 1991
- CatUa (University of Canterbury student newspaper), Nos. 8 (June 1977); 11 (July 1977) [aaargh: ?]
- Canadian Jewish News, April 14, 1988; August 30, 1990; November 1, 1990; October 22, 1992
- Canadian Jewish Outlook, Nos. 23, 4 (April 1985); 23, 6 (June 1985)
- Carnival Times (Imperial College, London), May 1959
- Chicago Tribune, April 25, 1990; January 12, 1992
- Christian News (Washington, Missouri), May 7, 1991; February 25, 1991
- Daily Northwestern, March 30, 1977
- Daily Telegraph, December 17, 1974; December 30, 1974; January 30, 1975; February 26, 1975; May 5, 1992
- Défense de l 'Occident, June 1967
- Der Neue Weg, Number 17/18, 1946
- Der Quell, Issue 9, 1961
- Der Spiegel, December 4, 1978; April 9, 1979; January 13, 1992
- Deutsche Nachrichten, February 17, 1967
- [Deutsche] National Zeitung, February 18, 1977; April 27, 1984; November 15, 1985
- Die Aula, Number 3, 1980
- Die Zeit, August 19, 1960; October 6, 1989
- Editor & Publisher, December 21, 1991
- Edmonton Sunday Sun, July 21, 1986
- Evening Stafford, November 28, 1963; July 3, 1992
- Farrago (Monash University student newspaper) July 14, 1982
- Frankfurter Allgemeine Zeitung, August 25, 1977
- Free Speech Monitor (Rexdale, Ontario), January-February, 1991
- Friends of Freedom, October/November 1992
- GANPAC Brief, No. 52, April 1987
- Gresham outlook (Gresham, Oregon), April 4, 1990
- Ha arch, May 25, 1990
- Harpers, August 1948
- Herald Examiner (Los Angeles), February 15, 1981
- IHR Newsletter, every issue from October 1981 onwards
- Instauration, October 1984
- International Express, July 9-15, 1992
- Intelligence Survey, Vol. 28, No. 12, December 1990
- Jewish Chronicle (London), April 9, 1943; October 2, 1974; July 7, 1978; June 23, 1989; June
- 30, 1989, October, 4, 1991; July 12, 1991; January 17, 1992 Jewish Frontier, June/July 1978; April 1979 Jerusalem Post (International Edition), Weeks ending: August 17, 1980; June 28, 1986; August 17, 1986; September 30, 1989; May 5, 1990; June 2, 1990; June 9, 1990; June 23, 1990; June 30, 1990; November 26, 1991; January 25, 1992 Junge Freiheit, April 1990 La Montagne, September 17, 1989 Le Matin de Paris, November 16, 1978 Le Monde, March 19-20, 1978; March 23, 1978; April 26, 1978; May 7-8, 1978; February 21, 1979; September 19,1989 Long Beach Independent Press Telegram, July 29, 1980 Los Angeles Times, May 16, 1981; May 16, 1985; February 26, 1989; December 16, 1990; December 23,1991 Les Temps Modernes, March 1951; April 1951 MacleatV!, March 11, 1985 [aaargh: ?] Maiden Observer, October 20, 1990, February 23, 1991 Michigan Daily, November 22, 1991 Monday Magazine, November 19-20, 1992 Montreal Gazette, April 24, 1988 Newsday, February 23, 1983 New Statesman, September 7, 1979 New Statesman and Society, August 18, 1989 National Review, May 31, 1979; June 28, 1979 National Revue, August 19, 1977 National Vanguard, Issues 58, 59, 60 (1978) Neue Insenburger Anzeigeblatt, February 24, 1976 New Zealand Herald, October 14, 1987; July 14, 1992 New Zealand Jewish Chronicle, February 1991; November 1991 New York City Tribune, November 29, 1989 New York Post, January 13, 1992 New York Review of Books, July 21,1983 New York Times, December 18, 1942; May 8, 1945; September 24, 1948; October 7, 1948; January 7, 1949; March 2, 1949: September 3, 1967; January 28, 1977; February 4, 1977; April 3, 1977; October 8, 1977; February 24, 1979; March 6, 1979; March 11, 1981; December 28, 1984; January 6, 1985; June 20, 1988; November 12, 1989; December 18, 1989; October 13, 1990; October 18, 1990; November 10, 1991; December 23, 1991 New York Times Book Review, May 26, 1977 Northern California Jewish Bulletin, April 27, 1990 On Target, June 13, 1988; October 30, 1989; December 11, 1990 Orange County Renter, January 18, 1986; February 10, 1986 Pattern of Prejudice, May/June 1975 Power Special Report (published by Ernst Zündel), June 11, 1987; December 30, 1990; August 23,1991 Oregonian, April 14, 1990 Quadrant, September 1979, April, 1980; October 1981 Race and Nation, Vol. X, Fall-Summer 1985 (nos. 66 & 67); Vol. XIX, Summer 1987 (No. 70); Vol. XV, Spring 1989 (No. 72); Vol. XVII, Summer 1990 (No. 74) REMARKS: Commentary on Current Events and History, Issue 1 (August 1990); Issue 2 (September-October 1990); Issue 3 (November-December 1990); Issue 4 (January-February 1991) Reveille (Refolds High School, Troutdale, Oregon), April 20, 1990 San Francisco Examiner, July 6, 1992 Searchlight, April 1977; January 1978; March 1982; September 1983; October 1983; December 1983; August 1991 SICSA Report: the Newsletter of the Vidal Sassoon International Centre for the Study of Antisemitism, Number 1, Fall 1988; Number 2, Summer 1989 Smith's Report 12, November/December 1992
- St Louis Post-Dispatch, August 18, 1990
- Sunday Sun, August 12, 1990
- Sunday Telegraph, January 12, 1992
- Sunday Times Weekly Review, June 12, 1977
- Sydney Morning Herald, July 25, 1989
- The Australian, May 15, 1990; August 14, 1990
- The Age, February 16, March 3, 15, 17, 22, 24, April 14 (all 1979); June 7, 1988
- The American Sunbeam, August 16, 1982
- The Balance, Volume 3, No. 3 (November 1992)
- The Bookseller, June 18, 1977
- The Boston Globe, October 1, 1990; December 12, 1990
- The Boston Herald, December 12, 1990
- The Bulletin, April 4, 1989
- The CDL Report, Issue Nos. 127 (April 1990); 129 (June 1990); 134 (November 1990)
- The Daily Mail, June 11, 1977
- The Daily Breeze, March 20, 1981; July 5, 1984; September 21, 1984; July 31, 1985
- The Guardian, June 8, 1977: January 31, 1985; January 3, 1993
- The Herald (Glasgow), July 28, 1992
- The Jerusalem Report, July 30, 1992
- The Jewish Press (Brooklyn, New York), November 24, 1989
- The National Times, Week ending February 10, 1979
- The New Times, Vol. 54, No. 8 (August 1990); Vol. 54, No. 11, (November 1990)
- The Observer, January 12, 1992
- The Press, October 12, 1987; October 17, 1987; September 5, 1990; October 5, 1991; January 14, 1992; July 6, 1992; August 17, 1992
- The Progressive, February 1949
- The Spectator, October 31, 1992
- The Spotlight, Reprint, December 24, 1979 ("The Great Holocaust Debate"); March 3, 1980; August 10, 1982; February 21, 1983
- The Sunday Times, January 20, 1985; July 5, 1992; July 12, 1992
- The Sydney Morning Herald, July 25, 1989
- The Toronto Sun, October 24, 1990; October 28, 1990
- The Times, March 14, 1971; August 8, 1985; May 14, 1990; January 13, 1992; July 4, 1992
- The Truth At Last, Issue Nos. 343 (n.d., 1990); 345 (n.d., 1990)
- The Washington Post, February 23, 1979; July 22, 1991; December 21, 1991, July 11, 1992
- The Washington Times, June 7, 1990; July 17, 1990; January 10, 1991; January 14, 1992
- Tikkun 4, May/June 1989
- Time, March 18, 1985
- Time Out, July 31, 1991
- Toledo Blade, April 1, 1990
- Toronto Star, March 25, 1981; September 4, 1983; February 16, 1988; February 17, 1988: February 18, 1988; April 21, 1988; April 22, 1988; April 26, 1988; April 27, 1988
- Tulsa Tribune, April 12, 1985
- Wrexham Leader, October 17, 1986
- Yiddish Culture, June-July 1956
Audio-tapes and Video-tapesAudio-tapes
- Butz, A., Context and Perspective in the Holocaust Controversy, Speech given at the Fourth International Revisionist Conference, Los Angeles, 1982 (IHR Audio-tape #A028)
- Irving, D., Churchill and U.S. Entry into World War II, Speech given at the Ninth International Revisionist Conference, Los Angeles, February 21, 1989 (IHR Audio-tape #A088)
- , Battleship Auschwitz. Speech given at the Tenth International Revisionist Conference,
- Faurisson, R., Holocaust Revisionism in Europe 1983-1987, Speech given at the Eighth International Revisionist Conference, Los Angeles, February 22, 1988 (IHR Audio-tape #A072)
- Lee, J., A Christian Perspective of the Six Million Hoax (Adelaide: League of Rights, 1983)
- Leuchter, F. A., Were Six Million People Gassed?, Radio interview by Tom Valentine on Radio Free America, March 7, 1989.
- , F. A., The Second Leuchter Report, Speech given at the Tenth international Revisionist Conference, Washington D. C., October 13, 1990. (IHR Audio-tape #A100)
- Stimely, K., Elements of Revisionism: A Historiographical Survey, Speech given at the Second International Revisionist Conference, Pomona College CA, 1980 (IHR Audio-tape #A009)
- Martin J., Survey of Revisionism, Speech given at the First International Revisionist Conference, Northrup University, California, September 1, 1979 (IHR Audio-tape #A001)
|Wellington D. C., October 13, 1990. (IHR Audio-tape #A101)|
|- ,||Dresden 1945. Churchills Schuld am Bombenterror, Offizielle Ansprache des englischen Historikers David Irving anläßlich des 45. Jahrestages des anglo-amerikanischen Bombenangriffs auf Dresden (Essen: Heitz & Höffkes, 1990)|
- Anti-Semitism in France (Newsweek, BBC, 1990)
- Leuchter in Poland (Hamilton, Ontario: History Buff Videos, n.d.)
- Never Forget, Produced by Robert B. Radnitz. Directed by Joseph Sargent (Turner Pictures, Inc., A Nimoy/Radnitz Production, 1991)
- Smith and Leuchter on Boston TV (IHR Videotape #V049)
- The Other Face of Terror, Produced and Directed by Ludi Boeken (Belboa Films in association with Searchlight Magazine, 1984)