"The Hoax" according to Arthur R. Butz
Butz's book is a contrived sham, dangerous only because of its possible impact on naive and confused general readers. For the specialist, or those with a general grasp of World War II conditions however, The Hoax of the Twentieth Century is a sitting duck.
the aura of what purports to be a kind of studious scholarship. Their writings are replete with annotations and bibliographies and appear calculated to impress the reader as being serious and balanced studies of the subject. This style of writing is clearly designed for students and the intelligentsia...
arguments he was putting forward. He did not include source references merely to "impress" readers. Like all scholars (Butz is a university professor, it should be remembered), he included references so that readers could check his sources and determine the accuracy and reliability of his citations and quotations. Butz was in a 'no win' situation; his detractors would certainly have condemned him if he had written in an emotional and subjective manner and provided no references, yet for writing in a dispassionate manner and identifying all his sources he was, and continues to be, derided.
[No historians have] produced an academic study arguing, and presenting the evidence for, either the thesis that the exterminations did take place or that they did not take place. If they did take place then it should be possible to produce a book showing how it started and why, by whom it was organized and the lines of authority in the killing operations, what the technical means were and that those technical means did not have some sort of more mundane interpretation (e.g. crematoria), who were the technicians involved, the numbers of victims from the various lands and the timetables of their executions, presenting the evidence on which these claims are based together with reasons why one should be willing to accept the authenticity of all documents produced at illegal trials. No historians have undertaken anything resembling such a project; only non-historians have undertaken portions.
A decade later ... the then obvious presidential candidate John F. Kennedy published a book, Profiles in Courage (a survey of various people whom Sen. Kennedy thought courageous), in which he commended Taft for taking this stand, adding that Taft's views "are shared ... by a substantial number of American citizens today."
The fact that the Nazi leaders are criminals has already been established. The task of the Tribunal is only to determine the measure of guilt of each particular person and mete out the necessary punishment - the sentences.
The entire repertoire of third degree methods was enacted at Dachau: beatings and brutal kicking, to the point of mining testicles in 137 cases, knocking out teeth, starvation, solitary confinement, torture with burning splinters, and impersonation of priests in order to encourage prisoners to "confess"... A favorite strategem, when a prisoner refused to cooperate, was to arrange a mock trial. The prisoner was led into a room in which civilian investigators, dressed in U. S. Army uniforms, were seated around a black table with a crucifix in the centre, with two candles providing the only light. This "court" then proceeded to hold a sham trial, at the conclusion of which a sham death sentence was passed. The "condemned" prisoner was later promised that, if he cooperated with the prosecutors in giving evidence, he would be reprieved. In many cases the prisoner's family was threatened with loss of ration cards or other hardships if cooperation was not obtained.
I would never have come here. Obviously, the victor in any war is not the best judge of the war crime guilt... What I have said of the nationalist character of the tribunals applies to the prosecution. The high ideals announced as the motives for creating these tribunals has not been evident. The prosecution has failed to maintain objectivity aloof from vindictiveness, aloof from personal ambitions for convictions. It has failed to strive to lay down precedents which might help the world avoid [p. 92] future wars. The entire atmosphere here is unwholesome. Linguists were needed. The Americans are notably poor linguists. Lawyers, clerks, interpreters and researchers were employed who became Americans only in recent years, whose backgrounds were imbedded in Europe's hatreds and prejudices... Most of the evidence in the trials was documentary, selected from the large tonnage of captured records. The selection was made [exclusively] by the prosecution. The defense had access only to those documents which the prosecution considered material to the case. Our tribunal introduced a rule of procedure that when the prosecution introduced an excerpt from a document, the entire document should be made available to the defense for presentation as evidence. The prosecution protested vigorously. Gen. [Telford] Taylor tried out of court to call a meeting of the presiding judges to rescind this order. It was not the attitude of any conscientious officer of the court seeking full justice. Also abhorrent to the American sense of justice is the prosecution's reliance upon self-incriminating statements made by the defendants while prisoners for more than 2 1/2 years, and repeated interrogation without presence of counsel...
The filling of the War Crimes Branch position with a fanatical Zionist, the "first soldier since Biblical times to hold the rank of General in the Army of Israel" is not only significant in terms of what the Zionist might do in the position, but also significant in revealing, in a simple way, the nature of the overall political forces [p. 93] operating at the trials. This is the important point. It is simply not possible to imagine an appointment that would make these trials more suspect. Under these political conditions it is simply silly to expect anything but a frame-up at the "trials".
Jackson the Chief Prosecutor] is away conducting his high-grade lynching party in Nuremberg... I don't mind what he does to the Nazis, but I hate to see the pretense that he is running a court and proceeding according to common law. This is a little too sanctimonious a fraud to meet my old-fashioned ideas.
1939 were both "crimes against peace" as defined in Section II, Article 6a of the Charter. Even the very planning of the British and French expedition to Norway, code-named "Stratford", was a "crime against peace". Although planned as a pre-emptive move against the Germans, the expedition would have flagrantly violated Norway's sovereignty. The fire-bombing of civilian populations of Lübeck, Cologne, Berlin, Hamburg and other German cities by the RAF and USAAF were arguably "war crimes" as defined in Section II, Article 6b. The Soviet massacre of Polish Army officers at the Katyn Forest was certainly a "crime against humanity" as defined in Section II, Article 6c. This is not, of course, an attempt to relativise or diminish the magnitude of the Nazi regime's many substantiated crimes. It is simply an acknowledgement that defendants at Nuremberg might have been justified in employing a tu quoque (you too) argument in defence of their claims that the four main counts on the Nuremberg indictment reflect a double standard.
these high death rates were naturally intolerable, so in late 1942 a special campaign got under way to reduce the concentration camp death rate and on 28 December 1942, Himmler ordered that the rate "be reduced at all costs". On 20 January 1943 Gluecks [the Inspector of Concentration Camps], in a circular letter to all [p. 100] concentration camp commanders, ordered that "every means must be used to lower the death rate."
the camp doctors must supervise the nutrition of the inmates and incorporate proposals for improvements in agreement with the camp commandants. These proposals must not merely remain on paper but must be inspected regularly by the camp doctors. Moreover, the camp doctors must make sure that working conditions in the individual work sites are improved as much as possible. For this purpose it is necessary for the camp doctors to make inspections of conditions at the work sites.
try to obtain for the nourishment of the prisoners in 1943 the greatest quantity of raw vegetables and onions. In the vegetable season issue carrots, kohlrabi, white turnips and whatever such vegetables there are in large quantities and store up sufficient for the prisoners in the winter so that they have a sufficient quantity every day. I believe we will raise the state of health substantially thereby.
Auschwitz during the month of August 1943. This represents about eighty deaths per day, or a combined death rate of 3.3% for the month. Buchenwald, by comparison, had a much lower death rate of 0.67% for the month, whilst Dachau's was 0.23% and Bergen-Belsen's was 0.12%. Only Lublin (Majdanek) had a higher death rate in August 1943. Regarding the Auschwitz death rate, which grew still further in 1944, Butz wrote:
It is perfectly obvious that these deaths, however deplorable and whatever the nature and location of the responsibility, had nothing to do with extermination or with Jews as such. From the point of view of the higher SS administration, they were "catastrophic" and efforts were made to bring them under control. It is not at all remarkable that with such death rates, cremation and mortuary facilities anticipating worst period death rates of even hundreds per day existed at Auschwitz.
Out of a total of 359,528 Union deaths from all causes, 110,070 were from combat but 224,586 were from disease. Of the deaths from disease, 44,000 were from "diarrhea and dysentery, acute and chronic" and 34,883 were from "typhoid, typhomalarial, and continued fevers." By contrast, the total number of deaths arising from combat at the Battle of Gettysburg for the Union army is only 3,155 and for the Confederate army is only 3,903.
10,000,000, with 3,000,000 deaths, in a population of 120,000,000. These are stupendous figures. Their scale can be realized to some extent by recalling that in the much described typhus epidemic in London in 1856 only 1,062 cases were recorded as treated in the London Fever Hospital out of a population of 3,000,000 whereas in Russia in the year 1921 alone there were 4,000,000 cases in a population of 120,000,000.
epidemic typhus was believed to have affected between 100,000 and 150,000 persons, though the official figures were barely over 15,000. The spread of disease was concealed from the Germans. Hospital cases of typhus were recorded as "elevated fever" or pneumonia. Mainly, the stricken were treated in their homes in a massive clandestine operation, covering up the presence of the disease from German inspection teams who periodically threatened to seal off the affected areas.
a Scherraum (shearing room, where heads were shaved), a Brauseraum (shower room), Trockenraum (drying room), Untersuchungsraum (medical examination room), and an Ankleideraum (dressing room).
[p. 105] is for a truck (no size specified) to travel from Auschwitz to Dessau "to pick up material for special treatment" ("Abholung von Materialien für Sonderbeh[andlung]"). The second authorisation is for a five-tonne truck to pick up "material for the resettlement of the Jews  ("Materialien für die Judenumsiedlung"). These two travel authorisations certainly refer to the procurement of Zyklon-B from Dessau, but in the light of the first three travel authorisations mentioned above they need not be seem as euphemistically referring to the extermination of Jews. In any event, as Auschwitz was obtaining without any pretense massive quantities of Zyklon-B for delousing, there was no need - even if homicidal gassings were occurring - to use coded phrases. If a load of Zyklon-B was needed for the exterminations the WVHA could simply have authorised a truck to pick up more "material for disinfecting".
female internees in the Auschwitz complex, and of these 67,000 internees some 18,000 were invalids or sick in hospital. Moreover, no less than 15,000 of these sick or disabled persons were in Auschwitz II (Birkenau), allegedly the worst of all extermination centres. Butz also quoted Gerald Reitlinger, who had written in The Final Solution that between the summer of 1942 and the summer of 1944 "only a fraction of the starved and ailing Birkenau population had been employed at all." Reitlinger also noted, said Butz, that two thirds of the 18,000 internees in the Birkenau male camp on May II, 1944 were classified as "immobile", "unemployable" and "un- assigned". These internees were quartered in sick blocks and quarantine blocks. "This," concluded Butz, "makes it impossible to accept the assumption, so often expressed, that to be sick and unemployable and to be sent to Birkenau meant execution." Mark Weber cites a document that appears to support this claim. It is an internal telex message of September 4, 1943 from SS-Standartenführer Gerhardt Maurer, the chief of Amt D-II (Arbeitseinsatz der Häftlinge - Prisoner Labour Allocation) of the WVHA. This document stales that only around 3,500 of the 25,000 Jews interned in Auschwitz at that time were able to work.
There is INCOMPATIBILITY in the creation of a health camp a few hundred yards from the Krematorien [sic] where, according to official history, people were exterminated on a large scale... It is obvious that KGL Birkenau cannot have had at one and the same time two opposing functions: health care and extermination. The plan for building a very large hospital section in BA III thus shows that the Krematorien were built purely for incineration, without any homicidal gassings...
crowded into trucks and trains, which carried them to the concentration camps. Sadly, many did not survive these terrible journeys. Once inside the camps the vast majority of internees became virtual slaves, both to the SS camp administrators and to the equally feared (if not more feared) elite groups of internees who supervised them on an everyday basis. Moreover, life in the camps was generally very difficult. Internees were forced to work long hours, often to the point of exhaustion. For example, on November 22, 1943 Pohl instructed the commandants of all concentration camps that
the eleven-hour working day laid down for prisoners must be maintained even during the winter months. Because of the limited daylight hours and the following onset of darkness, outside work detachments ["Außenkommandos"] (those in construction, for example) which must return to the camp in good time are exempt. But those prisoners working in factories or workshops must work eleven hours per day from Monday to Saturday inclusive. Prisoners may also work on Sundays when urgently needed, but only for the mornings. Because so much work essential to the war effort and to victory is now being done by [concentration camp] prisoners, under no circumstances is it permissible for the actual working day to be less than eleven hours
when the cells are filled they are closed and sealed. Steam is forced through apertures and suffocation of the victims begins. At first cries can be heard but these gradually subside and after fifteen minutes all is silent. The execution is over... Often a gravedigger is too weak to carry two bodies, as ordered, so he ties arms or legs together and runs to the burial ground, dragging them behind him.
written by Vrba and Wetzler (who remained anonymous until around 1960). At Birkenau, they claimed,
there are four crematoria in operation ... two large ones, I and II [now commonly referred to as II and III], and two smaller ones, III and IV [IV and V]. Those of type I and II consist of three parts, i.e.: (A) the furnace room; (B) the large hall; and (C) the gas chamber. A huge chimney rises from the furnace room around which are grouped nine furnaces, each having four openings. Each opening can take three normal corpses at once and after an hour and a half the bodies are completely burned. This corresponds to a daily capacity of about 2,000 bodies. Next to this is a large "reception hall" which is arranged so as to give the impression of the antechamber of a bathing establishment. It holds 2,000 people and apparently there is a similar waiting room on the floor below. From there a door and a few steps lead down into the very long and narrow gas chamber. The walls of this chamber are also camouflaged with simulated entries to shower rooms in order to mislead the victims. The roof is fitted with three traps [that is, openings] which can be hermetically closed from the outside. A [rail]track leads from the gas chamber towards the furnace room. The gassings take place as follows: the unfortunate victims are brought into hall (B) where they are told to undress. To complete the fiction they are going to bathe, each person receives a towel and a small piece of soap issued by two men clad in white coats. Then they are crowded into the gas chamber (C) in such numbers that there is, of course, only standing room. To compress this crowd into the narrow space, shots are often fired to induce those already at the far end to huddle still closer together. When everybody is inside, the heavy doors are closed. Then there is a short pause, presumably to allow the room temperature to rise to a certain level, after which SS men with gas masks climb on the roof, open the traps, and shake down a preparation in powder form out of tin cans labelled "CYKLON" "For use against vermin," which is manufactured by a Hamburg concern. It is presumed that this is a "CYANIDE" mixture of some sort which turns into gas at a certain temperature. After three minutes everyone in the chamber is dead... The chamber is then opened, aired, and the "special squad" carts the bodies on flat trucks to the furnace rooms where the burning takes place. Crematoria III and IV work on nearly the same principle, but their capacity is only half as large. Thus the total capacity of the four cremating and gassing plants at BIRKENAU amounts to about 6,000 daily. 
A concentration camp survivor yesterday admitted he never witnessed anybody being gassed to death and his book about Auschwitz-Birkenau is only "an artistic picture ... not a document for a court." Rudolf Vrba, now an assistant professor at the University of B.C., told the Ernst Zündel trial that his written and pictorial descriptions of the Auschwitz crematoria and gas chambers are based on "what I heard it might look like."... He said some narrative passages in his book I Cannot Forgive are based on accounts of others. One Vrba passage says it took 90 minutes to burn a corpse, another said it took twenty minutes.
There exists a document, apparently genuine, from the Gestapo District Headquarters, Düsseldorf, which specifies the manner in which executions of certain offending foreign workers were to be carried out, and which uses the term "Sonderbehandlung" as meaning execution There is; also a document, put into evidence at Eichmann's trial, which referred to the execution of three Jews as Sonderbehandlung. Thus it seems correct that, in certain contexts, the term meant execution. 
At the IMT trial, prosecution Amen led Kaltenbrunner, under cross examination, into conceding that the term might have meant execution as ordered by Himmler. Then, in an attempt to implicate Kaltenbrunner personally in Sonderbehandlung, Amen triumphantly produced a document which presents Kaltenbrunner as ordering Sonderbehandlung for certain people. Amen wanted Kaltenbrunner to comment on the document without reading it, and there was an angry exchange in this connection, but Kaltenbrunner was finally allowed to read the document, and he then quickly pointed out that the Sonderbehandlung referred to in the document was for people at "Winzerstube" and at "Walzertraum", that these two establishments were fashionable hotels which quartered interned notables, and that Sonderbehandlung in their cases meant such things as permission to correspond freely and to receive parcels, a bottle of champagne per day, etc." 
After Himmler examined the report he informed Korherr, through Brandt, that the term "Sonderbehandlung" should not be used in the report, and that transport to the East should be specified. Nevertheless the document, as it has come down to us, used the term in the way indicated. The document gives no hint how the term should be interpreted but since it occurs in such a way that it is linked with Theresienstadt [where systematic extermination is known not to have occurred], it is obviously fair to interpret it in a favorable sense, as a reference to some sort of favored treatment..
unfortunately, Der Spiegel has published the claim of Irving, the English historian, that during the Spring of 1942, on Himmler's orders, I calculated the number of Jewish victims. Actually, these figures were delivered to me, along with the text, in completed form by the Reich Security Head Office (RSHA) with the order that not one word or figure may be changed. The statement that I had claimed in this regard that more than a million Jews had died because of special treatment [Sonderbehandlung] in the camps in German-occupied Poland and in the Warthegau is also totally wrong. I must protest against the word "died" in this context.
It was precisely the term "special treatment" that made me ask the RSHA by telephone what this term actually meant. The answer I received was that the term referred to the Jews who were being settled in the District of Lublin.
Dr. Richard Korherr,
[or] other such atrocities. We have seen that even in Auschwitz the phrase could have a harmless meaning, such as a security operation or assignment of the secret police. An impartial investigation of other sources mentioning "special actions" reveals that the phrase was used in a variety of ways, but perhaps most frequently to mean special military or police operations such as questionings, interrogations, arrests, deportations, medical examinations, or 'selections' of internees for work or hospitalisation. For example, the arrest of sixty-four Jews from the Orleans region of France on June 25, 1942, and their subsequent deportation, was referred to as a "special action".  Perhaps the most famous of all German phrases relating to the Nazi maltreatment of Jews is the "final solution" ("die Endlösung"). Butz - to return to our analysis of his key theses - argued that this phrase was never used by the Nazis to denote the planned or attempted extermination of Europe's Jews. lt was used exclusively, he said, to denote the programme of expelling Jews from German-occupied Europe. To support this bold claim, which clearly contradicts received opinion, Butz reproduced in full Martin Luther's lengthy memorandum to Joachim von Ribbentrop, dated August 21, 1942.  Although Butz failed to mention it, Unterstaatssekretär Luther was head of the Abteilung Deutschland, a department within the Foreign Office (Auswärtiges Amt). Referat D III of the Abteilung Deutschland was the so-called "Jewish Bureau". Luther, one of the Foreign Office's experts on Jewish affairs, played a significant role in co-ordinating the deportation of Jews from various countries and represented the Foreign Office at the infamous Wannsee Conference.  In the memorandum of August 21, 1942, designated "most urgent", Luther essentially recapitulated for Ribbentrop the development of Nazi policy regarding Jews from 1939 to the time of writing. "The principle of the German Jewish policy after the seizure of power", began Luther,
consisted in promoting with all means the Jewish emigration. For this purpose, in 1939 Field Marshall Goering in his capacity as Plenipotentiary for the Four Year Plan established a Reich Central Office for Jewish Emigration and the direction was given to SS Lieutenant General Heydrich in his capacity as chief of the Security Police... The present war gives Germany the opportunity and also the duty of saving the Jewish problem in Europe. ln consideration of the favorable course of the war against France, DIII ... proposed in July 1940 as a solution - the removal of all Jews from Europe and the demanding of The Island of Madagascar from France as a territory for the reception of the Jews. The Reich Foreign Minister has basically agreed to the beginning of the preliminary work for the deportation of the Jews from Europe. This should be done in close cooperation with the offices of the Reichsfuehrer-SS [Himmler] ... The Madagascar plan was enthusiastically accepted [p. 124] by the RSHA [Reichssicherheitshauptamt - Reich Security Head Office] which in the opinion of the Foreign Office is the agency which alone is in the position technically and by experience to carry out a Jewish evacuation on a large scale and to guarantee the supervision of the people evacuated. The competent agency of the RSHA thereupon worked out a plan going into detail for the evacuation of the Jews to Madagascar and for their settlement there. This plan was approved by the Reichsfuehrer-SS. SS Lieutenant General Heydrich submitted this plan directly to the Reich Foreign Minister in August 1940... The Madagascar plan in fact had been outdated as a result of the political development.  The fact that the Fuehrer intends to evacuate all Jews from Europe was communicated to me as early as August 1940 by Ambassador Abetz after an interview with the Fuehrer... Hence the basic instruction of the Reich Foreign Minister, to promote the evacuation of the Jews in closest cooperation with the agencies of the Reichsfuehrer-SS, is still in force and will therefore be observed by D II.
In his letter of 24 June 1940 ... SS Lieutenant General Heydrich informed the Reich Foreign Minister that the whole problem of the approximately three and a quarter million Jews in the areas under German control can no longer be solved by emigration - a territorial solution would be necessary. In recognition of this, Reich Marshall Goering on 31 July 1941 commissioned SS Lieutenant General Heydrich to make, in conjunction with the interested German control agencies, all necessary preparations for a total solution of the Jewish problem in the German sphere of existence in Europe ... On the basis of this instruction, SS Lieutenant General Heydrich arranged a conference of all the interested German agencies for 20 January 1942, at which the State Secretaries were present from the other ministries and I myself from the Foreign Office. In the [Wannsee] Conference, General Heydrich explained that Reich Marshall Goering's assignment to him had been made on the Fuehrer's instruction and that the Fuehrer instead of the emigration had now authorized the evacuation of the Jews to the East as the solution... On the basis of the Fuehrer's instruction ... the evacuation of the Jews from Germany was begun ... [and later] the deportations of the Jews from the occupied territories were under-taken.
The intended deportations are a further step forward on the way of the total solution and are in respect to other countries (Hungary) very important. The deportation to the Government General is a temporary measure. The Jews will be moved on further to the occupied Eastern Territories as soon as the technical conditions for it are given. I therefore request approval for the continuation of the negotiations and measures under the terms and according to the arrangement made.
Madagascar had long exercised a fascination among anti-Semites as the ideal dumping ground for the European Jews, but the idea did not take on real form as a concrete proposal among the Nazis until put forward by the Jewish expert of the Foreign Office, Franz Rademacher, in early June 1940, when Germany's power to redistribute the French empire seemed at hand. The alacrity with which the proposal was seized upon by the Nazi leadership is a measure of the frustration that had built up over the bottlenecks of demographic engineering in eastern Europe over the past nine. months. By June 18 Hitler had informed Mussolini of his intention to use Madagascar as a Jewish reservation, and he broached the subject again with Admiral Raeder on June 20. On June 24 the ever attentive Heydrich asserted his jurisdiction vis-à-vis the Foreign Office over Jewish resettlement there. The news spread quickly eastward. On July l, Adam Czerniakow, the head of the Judenrat in Warsaw, learned from an SD official, "that the war would be over in a month and that we would all leave for Madagascar." [Hans] Frank knew by July 10 that he was not only reprieved from the expected deluge of Jews from the Reich but would now be rid of his own Jews as well - a "colossal relief" that he boisterously expounded upon to the Heiterkeit or "amusement" of his assembled court. On Frank's orders ghetto buildings in the General Government came to an abrupt halt as [they were] pointless in view of the "plan of the Führer" to send the Jews to Madagascar. 
To complete [*] the task that was entrusted to you in the decree dated 24 January 1939, namely to solve the Jewish question by emigration and evacuation ["die Judenfrage in Form der Auswanderung oder Evakuierung"] in a manner which is most favourable in connection with the conditions prevailing at the time, l hereby commission you to carry out all the preparations with regard to organisational, practical, and financial viewpoints for a total solution of the Jewish question in those territories in Europe under German influence. If the competency of other central organisations is touched upon in this connection, these organisations are to participate. I further commission you to submit to me as promptly as possible a comprehensive proposal outlining the organisational, technical and material measures already taken for the intended final solution of the Jewish question ["Endlösung der Judenfrage"].
The invasion of the Soviet Union gave the idea of a territorial solution a new lease on life [after the Madagascar plan came to nothing]. After conquering the eastern Lebensraum along with additional Jews, the Reich would banish European Jewry to vast lands deep in Russia, east of the Urals. At the time that Göring instructed Heydrich to draft the letter signed [by Göring] on July 31, 1941, a quick and decisive defeat of Soviet Russia was still taken for granted... There is nothing in these instructions [the "Göring Decree"], either explicit or implicit, to indicate that by directing Heydrich to prepare an overall and definitive solution - a final solution - of the "Jewish problem", Göring was asking him to prepare for the immediate or eventual mass murder of Jews. 
SS-Gruppenführer Heydrich, Chef der Sicherheitspolizei und des SD, opened the conference by announcing that he had been appointed by the Reichsmarschall [Göring] to serve as director of the preparation of the Final solution of the Jewish question. He also indicated that the purpose of the conference was to clarify the fundamental issues. The Reichsmarschall's request to have a draft proposal on the organisational, practical and material concerns regarding the final solution of the European Jewish question made necessary the prior agreement of all central agencies directly interested to coordinate their work.
The overall responsibility for the measures necessary for the final solution of the Jewish question rests with [Himmler,] the Reichsführer-SS und Chef der Deutschen Polizei (Chef der Sicherheitspolizei und des SD), regardless of any geographical boundaries.
The Chef der Sicherheitspolizei und des SD thereupon gave a brief review of the struggle against these opponents [''Kampf gegen diesen Gegner"] up to the present time. The essential phases are:
a) Forcing the Jews of the vital spheres of the German people,
b) Forcing the Jews out of the living space of the German people.
To arrive at these objectives, the only possibility of a provisional solution was to accelerate and to undertake in a methodical manner the emigration of the Jews out [p. 128] of the Reich territory.
A Reich Central Office for Jewish Emigration was established in January 1939, by decree of the Reichsmarschall, and the direction of this office was given to the Chef der Sicherheitspolizei und des SD. This office had the particular task of
a) taking all steps for the preparation of an intensified emigration of the Jews,
b) directing the course of emigration,
c) hastening emigration in individual [or particular] cases.
The objective was to clear the German living space of Jews in a legal manner.
in view of the dangers of emigration during wartime, and in view of the [new] possibilities in the east, the Reichsführer-SS und Chef der Deutschen Polizei has forbidden the emigration of Jews.
To take the place of emigration, and with the prior approval of the Führer, the evacuation of the Jews to the east has become another possible solution. Although these actions are obviously to be regarded as alternative possibilities ["Ausweichmöglichkeiten"], the practical experience thus gained in this field is of great importance for the final solution of the Jewish question. In the course of this final solution of the European Jewish question ["Im Zuge dieser Endlösung der europäischen Judenfrage"], around eleven million Jews are involved.
Under proper direction the Jews shall now, in the course of the final solution, be taken to the east and put to work in a suitable manner. Separated by sex, Jews capable of work will be taken to these areas and employed in large labour columns in the construction of roads, whereby a large part will undoubtedly fall away through natural decline ["wobei zweifellos ein Großteil durch natürliche Verminderung ausfallen wird"].
The remnant that will in any case survive this - which doubtless constitutes the toughest element - must be treated appropriately ["entspechend behandelt werden"] since these people, representing a natural selection, would upon their release ["bei Freilassung" ] be regarded as the germ cell of a new Jewish development (see the experience of history).
In the course of the practical implementation of the final solution, Europe is to be combed from west to east. The Reich area, including the Protectorate of Bohemia and Moravia, will have to be taken first, if only because of the housing problem and other social and political necessities.
The evacuated Jews are to be brought group by group first to the so-called transit ghettos, so that they can then be transported further to the east...
lt is not intended to evacuate Jews over the age of sixty-five, but to transfer them to a ghetto for the aged - Theresienstadt is being constructed. As well as these old-age categories - of the 280,000 or so Jews who were in Germany and Austria on October 31, 1941, perhaps thirty percent are over sixty-five - seriously-wounded Jews [World War l veterans] and Jews with war decorations (Iron Cross, First Class) will also be taken to the ghettos for the aged. With this appropriate solution all interventions [on behalf of individuals] would be shut out with a single blow. The beginning of the individual larger evacuation actions ["Evakuierungsaktionen"] [p. 129] will depend to a large degree on military developments... In connection with the problematic effect of Jewish evacuation on economic life, Staatssekretär Neumann stated that Jews employed in essential war industries could not be evacuated for the time being, until replacements could be found. Heydrich pointed out that those Jews, in accordance with the directives he had approved for the implementation of current evacuations, would not be evacuated.
Let nobody tell me that all the same we can't park them [the Jews] in the marshy parts of Russia! Who's worrying about our troops? It's not a bad idea, by the way, that public rumor attributes to us a plan to exterminate the Jews. Terror is a salutary thing. 
will be possible between Europeans." He continued:
For my part, I restrict myself to telling them that they must get out... If they refuse to go voluntarily, I see no other solution but their annihilation. Why should l look at Jews with other eyes than if they were Russian prisoners of war. Many are perishing in the POW camps. It's not my fault. l wanted neither this war nor the POW camps. Why did the Jew[s] provoke this war? " 
The Führer [with whom he had just met] again voices his determination to remorselessly cleanse Europe of its Jews. There can be no sentimental feelings here. The Jews have deserved the catastrophe they are now experiencing. They will experience their own annihilation ["Vernichtung"] together with the annihilation of our enemies. We must accelerate this process with cold brutality. 
I read a detailed report from the SD and police [a copy of the protocol or a summary] regarding the final solution of the Jewish question. Any final solution involves a tremendous number of new viewpoints. The Jewish question must be solved [p. 131] within a pan-European frame. There are [as the Protocol states] 11,000,000 Jews still in Europe. They will have to be concentrated, to begin with, in the East; possibly an island, such as Madagascar, can be assigned to them after the war." 
Because in the near future we will not be able to count on Russian prisoners of war, I am sending to the camps a large number of Jews expelled from Germany. Will you therefore prepare to receive during the next four weeks 100,000 Jews and 50,000 Jewesses who will be sent to concentration camps, which will have to deal with major economic problems and tasks. SS-Gruppenführer Pohl will inform you of particulars. 
The war makes necessary a change in the structure of the concentration camps and ... their functions in regard to the employment of the detainees. The increase in the number of detainees solely for reasons of security, re-education, or prevention, is no longer a primary concern. The main emphasis is placed on the economic aspect. The mobilisation of all camp labour first for military tasks (to raise armaments production) ["für Kriegsaufgaben (Rüstungssteigerung)"] and later for building programmes in peacetime, must be given increasingly higher priority. This realisation demands action which will cause a gradual transformation of the concentration camps from their one-sided political form into an organisation suited to economic activities. 
the document contains no references - explicit or implicit - to an extermination programme. There is only one passage in the document which mentions Jews dying, and that describes them "falling away" naturally (if such deaths can be called natural) because of the hard work they would be forced to do in the east. That is, selections would be made, and Jews deemed fit for hard labour would be put to work on projects like road building, regardless of how many died from exhaustion, disease, and so forth. Heydrich coldly predicted that a "large part" would fall away in this manner'. Nonetheless, this passage describes a brutal policy of forced labour, but not one of extermination. It is unclear what Heydrich meant when he stated that those who survive these harsh conditions and are released "must be treated appropriately". However, the document does refer to the eventual "release" or "liberation" of those who survive the harsh conditions, which appears to indicate that once the war was over the German government intended to release those Jews still working. One need not interpret Heydrich's comment to mean that those released from labour were to be exterminated. The fact that ghettos were being constructed for hundreds of thousands of old Jews and decorated and disabled Jewish war veterans - there were around 90,000 in Germany and Austria alone - indicates that the total extermination of the Jewish race was not being discussed at the conference. Moreover, although the protocol does not mention what was to happen to all those considered unfit for work, there is no mention made of them having to be "treated appropriately." The document certainly does not suggest they were to be exterminated. "Apparently," wrote Arno Mayer, "the unfit - children, many women, the infirm, the elderly - were to be evacuated "to so-called transit ghettos, for transportation further east from there." " 
At the time of the German invasion of Russia in June 1941, there was a Fuehrer order declaring, in anticipation of an identical Soviet policy, that the war with Russia was not to be fought on the basis of the traditional "rules of warfare". Necessary measures were to be taken to counter partisan activity, and Himmler was given the power to "act independently upon his own responsibility." Everyone [in the upper levels of government and the military, presumably] knew that that meant executions of partisans and persons collaborating with partisans. The dirty task was assigned to four Einsatzgruppen of the SD [Sicherheitsdienst - the Security Service of the SS], which had a total strength of about 3,000 men (i.e. of the order of 500 to 1,000 men per group). 
In order to prepare the political and administrative organization [in newly-occupied territories] the Führer has delegated to the Reichsführer-SS certain special tasks ["Sonderaufgaben"] within the operations zone of the army. These originate from the necessity to settle once and for all the struggle between two opposing political systems. Within the framework of these tasks the Reichsführer-SS will act independently and on his own responsibility... The Reichsführer-SS is responsible for ensuring that military operations are not affected by the measures he finds necessary to carry out these tasks. 
was to deal with such dangers by all necessary means, so we need not be told much more to surmise that the Einsatzgruppen must have shot many Jews, although we do not know whether "many" means 5,000, 25,000, or 100,000. Naturally, many non-Jews were also executed... However, the [orthodox historical] claim goes beyond this, and asserts a dual role for the Einsatzgruppen; they were charged not only with keeping the partisan problem under control but also with exterminating all Jews (and Gypsies). Common sense alone should reject the notion that the Einsatzgruppen, which had a total strength of about 3,000 men, as a matter of general policy, spent their time and effort pursuing objectives unrelated to military considerations. The most frequently cited evidence [of the Einsatzgruppen atrocities] is a collection of documents purporting to be the daily and other reports of the Einsatzgruppen to Himmler and Heydrich for the period June 1941 to May 1942... Besides telling of regular anti-partisan activities, the reports tell of individual actions of mass executions of Jews, with numbers of victims usually running in the thousands. It is indicated, in most cases, that many copies [of the progress reports], sometimes as many as a hundred, were distributed. 
The following will be executed:
Functionaries of the Comintern (most of who are simply professional Communist politicians).
Functionaries of higher and medium rank and "radicals" in the Party, the Central Committee, and the regional and district committees.
Commissars of the People. Jews in the Service of the Party and the State. Other radical elements (saboteurs, propagandists, snipers, assassins, agitators, etc.)...
No actions should be taken to interfere with any activities that may be started by anti-Communist or anti-Jewish elements in the newly occupied territories. Rather, these are to be secretly encouraged. Nonetheless, all care must be taken to ensure that those who get involved in these local "self defence" activities are not able to claim later that they were merely following instructions or had been promised political protection. 
which we have no real evidence. Heydrich did not instruct the Einsatzgruppen to kill all Jews. He only instructed them to kill, along with various categories of non-Jews, Jews in the service of the Party and the State ("Juden in Partei- und Staatsstellungen"). Clearly Jews accused of being "saboteurs, propagandists, snipers, assassins, agitators, etc." would also be executed, and probably on no other evidence than mere suspicion. As this document and Keitel's directive of March 13, 1941 reveal, the Einsatzgruppen were principally used for the purposes of destroying Bolshevism, countering espionage and partisan activity, and establishing rudimentary law and order in one of the bloodiest war zones in history. In the furious struggle between the two competing ideologies, National Socialism and Bolshevism, all persons considered politically dangerous or troublesome were to be annihilated. "Preemptive guerrilla warfare" is one phrase that has been used to describe these actions. Of course, because Nazis tended to believe that Bolshevism sprung from the Jewish race anyway, Jewish communities, towns and ghettos would have been the main 'hunting grounds' of the Einsatzgruppen.
Whenever I was forced to take steps against the partisans and Jewish commissars in some village - I'll say it for the information of this group only - I made it a point to give the order to kill the women and children of these partisans and commissars. I would have been a weakling and I would be committing a crime against our descendants if l allowed the hate-filled sons of the subhumans we have liquidated in this struggle of humanity against subhumanity to grow up. 
the question a historian should ask is, 'Why does this document exist?'. A man is out in the field behind the Russian front doing his job for the SS and he is being asked how well he is doing and he's going to show he's doing a jolly good job and that's the kind of category ... I put these Einsatzgruppen reports into. I don't trust the statistics they contain... Statistics like this are meaningless.